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Full text of "French prisoners' lodges. A brief account of twenty-six lodges and chapters of freemasons, established and conducted by French prisoners of war in England and elsewhere, between 1756 and 1814. Illustrated by eighteen plates, consisting of facsimiles of original documents, seals, &c"

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2 1981 




Cornell University Library 
HS596 .T51 

French prisoners' |odae| 

3 1924 030 291 102 


The original of tliis book is in 
tlie Cornell University Library. 

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Twenty=six Lodges and Chapters 





French Prisoners op War 


BETWEEN 1756 AND 1814. 



P.M. 523 and 2429 ; P.P.S.G.W. of Leicestershire and Rutland ; 
Hon." Mem. of Lodges No. 50, 1391 and 2433. 

Author of "Fifty Years' Records of the 'John of Gaunt' Lodge, No. s^S" S 

"Annals of the Chapter of 'Fortitude,' No. 2yp"; "Memorials of Lodge 

No. gi A ntients " ; " The Early History of the ' Knights of Malta ' 
Lodge, No, j'O, " &-€., S-c, 

Leicester : Printed by Bro. George Gibbons, King Street. 


All Rights Reserved.] 




Ibis Dear jfrien& an6 JBrotber 

XlHlilliant James Ibugban, 

1P.S.(5.D. ot tbe ©rant) XoOge of EnglanO, 

Jn Grateful IRecognftton 

of IDaluable Hssistance anCi Direction 

in /Ibasonic 5tu5s anb IResearcb, 

jfreels 1RenC»ere5 upon many ©ccasions, 

Ubese pages 


/Ibost jfraternalls Debicateb 


^be Hutbor. 




The existence of Freemasons' Lodges amongst French 
Prisoners of War has long been known to the reading 
Members of the Fraternity. Ranging over a period 
of about sixty years, they were established from time 
to time in many parts of Great Britain, for wherever 
a large number of prisoners were collected together, 
there would probably be sufficient Freemasons amongst 
them to open and work a Lodge. 

A considerable number of these Prisoners' Lodges 
were established by the French soldiers and sailors 
captured during the Napoleonic wars, and confined in 
Great Britain, in British Colonies or in towns tempo- 
rarily occupied by the British forces. 

At that time Freemasonry was exceedingly popular 
in the French army, many Regiments having Lodges 
attached to them, it was therefore only natural, that 
during their enforced idleness, the Freemasons amongst 
the prisoners should seek to relieve the monotony of 
their existence, by devoting some portion of their 
time to the working of the Masonic ceremonies in 
Lodges established by themselves. 

Many Masonic writers have recorded the existence 
of these French Prisoners' Lodges, and have given 

some few particulars of one and another of them, but 
no attempt has hitherto been made to gather up all 
the scattered details, and place them together on 
permanent record. 

A diligent search conducted by me for some years 
past, has resulted in the discovery of many of these 
Lodges hitherto unknown, and although the informa- 
tion obtained, and recorded in the following pages is 
of an extremely fragmentary character, it may prove 
of interest to some, and serve as a basis for further 
investigation and enquiry. 

There were doubtless many more Lodges and Chap- 
ters established than the twenty-six here recorded, it 
may therefore be confidently expected that in course 
of time the list will be considerably increased. 

With one exception, the Certificates represented in 
the various Plates are entirely drawn by hand with 
ink and sepia, and the excellence of their design and 
execution, especially those issued by the Lodges at 
Abergavenny, Leek and Valleyfield, bears witness to 
the skill as well as to the patience of some of the 
French Masons. 

Amongst the Members of the Masonic Brotherhood 
to whom thanks for valuable assistance are especially 
due, and hereby gratefully tendered, are Brothers 
William James Hughan of Torquay, Henry Sadler 
of London, Frederick Gardner of Abergavenny, 
James C. Hogg of Kelso, William Hart of Melrose, 
Frederick J. W. Crowe of Torquay, B. Weddell of 
Selkirk, John Sharland of Tiverton and Reginald R. 
Hutchings of Wincanton. 

Many interesting details have also been taken from 
Brother R. F. Gould's invaluable " History of Free- 
masonry," from the pages of " The Freemason " 


and other works, all of which are also gratefully- 

The readiness with which the owners of the various 
documents have lent them for reproduction should 
also be placed on record. 

Conscious of the many faults and imperfections of 
this little work, I appeal to the Fraternity for their 
kind consideration and indulgence. 

J. T. T. 


:ottf enf s. 






Berlin. " De la Fidelity." 

Magdeburg. " Parfaite Union 

Abergavenny. " Enfants de Mars at de Neptune, 

Ashburton. " Des Amis Rdunis.'' 

Ashby-de-la-Zouoh. " Vrais Amis de I'Ordre, 

Ashby-de-la-Zouch. " De la Justice et de FUnion 



Leek. " De I'Amitid." 

Leek. "Reunion Ddsir^e." 

Malta. " Les Amis en Captivite." 

Melrose. "La Bienfaisance.'' .. 

Northampton. " La Bonne Union." 

Plymouth. "Amis R^unis.'' ... 

Sanquhar. "La Paix Desiree.'' 


Tiverton. " Enfants de Mars." 

Valleyfield. " L'Infortune." ... 

Vittoria. "Des Infortunes." ... 

Wantage. " Coeurs Unis " 

Wincanton. " La Paix D^sirde." 

British Prisoners of War in France. 





















gfCusf rations. 

Plate I. 

Plate II. 

Plate III. 

Plate IV. 

Plate V. 

Plate VI. 

Plate VII. 

Plate VIII. 

Plate IX. 

Plate X. 

Plate XL 

Plate XII. 

Plate XIII. 

Plate XIV. 

Plate XV. 

Plate XVI. 

Plate XVII. 

Plate XVIII 

P- 5° 
P- 56 
p. 60 

Seals and Stamps used in the Lodges. Frontispiece. 

Abergavenny. — Interior of Lodge-Room. ... p. 27 

Abergavenny. — Laudy's Certificate... ... p. 37 

Abergavenny. — Richards' Lodge Certificate. ... p. 41 

Abergavenny. — Richards' Chapter Certificate... p. 44 

Abergavenny. — Collar and Swords... 

Ashburton. — Carcenac's Certificate... 

Ashby-de-la-Zouch. — Jean's Lodge Certificate 

Ashby-de-la-Zouch. — Jean's Chapter Certificate, 

Ashby-de-la-Zouch. — Endorsement on Grivaut's 

Kelso. — Declaration with Signatures. 

Leek. — Pinguet's Certificate. 

Leek. — Endorsement on Pinguet's Certificate, 

Plymouth. — Endorsement on Lescamela's Cer- 
Valleyfield. — Meric's Certificate. 
Vittoria. — Palis's Certificate. 
Wincanton. — Plummer's Certificate 
Wincanton. — Apron. 



p. 99 
p. T12 
p. 117 
p. 126 
p. 128 



From the year 1740 to 1815 Great Britain and France 
were almost constantly at war with one another. The 
conflict raged in Europe, Asia, Africa and America, 
the victory in most cases remaining with the British. 
In consequence of these successes a vast number of 
prisoners fell into the hands of the British com- 
manders, who shipped them over in detachments to 
England, where they were treated more or less harshly 
as prisoners of war. 

Large numbers of these unfortunate men were 
imprisoned in England in 1746, 1756, 1759 and 1779. 
In 1759 no less than 11,000 were located at Knowle, 
near Bristol, where they suffered much from want of 
food and clothing.* But by far the greater number 
were brought over during the Revolutionary wars of 
1797 to 1 8 14, for it is computed that between 1803 
and the signing of the Treaty of Paris in May, 18 14, 
upwards of 122,000 French soldiers and sailors were 
sent over to England, many of whom had been taken 
prisoners during the Peninsular War. Of this vast 
number, about 17,000 were either exchanged for English- 
men of corresponding rank who were prisoners in 
France,f or were invalided home, over 10,000 died in 

* Vide "Notes and Queries," 8th S., XI., p. 453. 

t Mons. Ott was the resident French Agent in London for the exchange 
of prisoners in the year 1800. ( Vide Alison's " History of Europe," 
1854 Edit., Vol. v., p. 52.) 

prison, several hundreds of the commissioned officers 
broke their parole and escaped from the country, but 
the vast majority remained in captivity until Napoleon's 
exile to Elba gave temporary peace to Europe* It is 
stated, that between April nth, 1814, and August 27th 
of the same year, no less than 67,000 of the French 
prisoners were sent back to their native land by the 
English authorities.! 

The common soldiers and sailors were mostly con- 
fined in huge barracks or prisons, situated in different 
parts of the country, in some cases, as at Dartmoor and 
Perth, especially erected for the purpose. Thus 4,000 
were imprisoned at Forton near Portsmouth, 5,000 at 
Portchester, 7,000 at Perth, 6,000 in Dartmoor prison, | 
6,000 in the Norman Cross Barracks near Peterborough! 
9,000 on board prison hulks in Portsmouth harbour, 
and several thousands at Weedon Barracks in North- 
amptonshire, whilst the remainder were distributed over 
the country, almost every town, possessing accom- 
modation for the purpose, having its complement. |i 

The Officers, and those civilians who were entitled to 
rank as gentlemen, were allowed to reside "on parole" 
within assigned limits and on certain conditions. They 
were located mostly in the smaller provincial towns, and 
being in many cases men of rank and education, " were 

* Partly taken from an article on "Prisoners of War," in Chambers' 
Journal, 1854, Vol. I., p. 330. 

t From Toone's "Chronological Record," quoted in "Notes and 
Queries," August, 1897. 

J According to Alison (" History of Europe," 1854 Edition, Vol. IX., 
p. 61), 20,000 were at Dartmoor in the year 1812. 

§ The French Bishop of Moulins voluntarily took up his abode near this 

prison, in order to minister to the spiritual needs of the prisoners. 

(Vide "Notes and Queries," 8th S., IX., p. 289, and X., p. 197.) 
II Partly taken from an article on "Prisoners of War," in Chambers' 

Journal, 1854, Vol. I., p. 330. Also vide Howell's " History of the 

Phoenix Lodge," p. 66. 


esteemed for their polite and agreeable manners, and 
were received in all public assemblies with high con- 
sideration and a courteous welcome."* As already 
stated, several hundreds broke their parole and escaped. 
The general conditions of their detention were 
probably made as little irksome as possible, and a 
great deal of consideration was shewn them in many 
ways, but in spite of this, the simple fact of their being 
under restraint must have been exceedingly galling 
to so proud a race. That many remained in England 
after peace was declared is well known, and proves that 
in some cases at least their captivity had been neither 
severe nor unpleasant. 

The following are some of the towns in which the 
French prisoners were located : — Abergavenny, Ash- 
burton, Ashby - de - la - Zouch, Bandon, Basingstoke, 
Bedale, Bideford, Boroughbridge, Bristol, Carlisle, 
Carnarvon, Chatham, Chepstow, Chesterfield, Derby, 
Dover, Edinburgh, Falmouth, Fareham, Hawick, Kelso, 
Knaresborough, Launceston, Leeds, Leek, Leicester, 
Melrose, Montrose, Northampton, Okehampton, Peebles, 
Pembroke, Penrith, Penryn, Perth,- Peterborough, Peters- 
field, Plymouth, Pontefract, Portchester, Portsmouth, 
Redruth, Richmond, Sanquhar, Selkirk, Sissinghurst, 
Tavistock, Tiverton, Tynemouth, Wakefield, Wantage, 
Wincanton, Winchester, Wisbech and York. There 
is no doubt that many other towns besides the fore- 
going had their complement, either temporarily or 

According to Sir Archibald Alison, the historian, the 
French authorities never remitted one farthing for 
the maintenance of this host of prisoners, but left 

* Vide Thompson's " History of Leicester," 1876 Edit., p. 169. 


them either "to starve or be a burden on the British 
Government, which, on the contrary, regularly remitted 
the whole cost of the support of the English capti\es 
in France, to the imperial authorities."* 

At this time — 1797 to 1814 — Freemasonry was as 
popular in the French,f as it was in the British army, 
it is not surprising to find, therefore, that amongst 
the thousands of French officers who were brought to 
England from time to time as Prisoners of War, there 
were a great number of Freemasons. The members of 
the English Craft seem to have done their utmost to 
alleviate the distress of these French Brethren, as many 
old Lodge minute-books record sums of mone\- sub- 
scribed for their relief, and upon one occasion the Grand 
Lodge of England voted a substantial amount, for the 
benefit of a French Naval Commander, a prisoner of 
war " on parole " at Launceston. ;J: 

One officer of high rank, passed most of his captivity 
as an honored guest of the Duke of Devonshire, at 
Chatsworth House, Derb)-shire, and on subsequentlj- 
visiting the Duke after the conclusion of the war, is 
said to have declared, that the happiest period of his 
life was when he was a prisoner "on parole" in 

Bro. Burnes, a Magistrate and IMaster of a Lodge at 
Montrose, took the responsibilit}- of removing some 

* Vide Alison's " History of Europe," 1854 Edit., Vol. IX., p. 61. 

t The first Lodge in the French Army was "La Parfaite Union,'' con- 
stituted in 1759, and by the year 1787, seventy-six Lodges under 
the Grand Orient of France had already been warranted in various 
Regiments. {,Vide Gould's " History of Freemasonry," Chap. XXX., 
p. 408.) 

% Book of Constitutions, 1767, p. 273. 

§ Vide "Prisoners of War," in Chambers' Journal, 1854, Vol. L, p. 330. 


French prisoners from the local jail to his own house, 
because they were Masons ; this Brother was the father 
of Sir Alexander Burnes, the famous Asiatic traveller, 
and of Dr. James Burnes, Provincial Grand Master of 
Bombay (Scotch Constitution) in 1836* 

In September, 1842, Bro. T. H. Hall, Grand Registrar 
of the Grand Lodge of England, was present at a 
Meeting of the Grand Orient of France in Paris, on 
which occasion, a Mason named Bessin expressed to 
him the recollection of benefits received from English 
members of the Craft, when a prisoner of war in 

That the Freemasons amongst the prisoners were 
received as visitors at Masonic meetings in England, 
Scotland and Ireland, the minutes of Lodges at Leices- 
ter, Winchester, Bandon, Selkirk, Hawick, Melrose, 
Redruth and other towns amply testify, and in many 
cases there is no doubt they became Joining Members 
of these local Lodges. 

In those towns, however, where no Lodge existed, 
or where there were sufficient Freemasons amongst the 
prisoners to open and work a Lodge by themselves, 
they seem frequently to have established one of their 
own, conducting the business and ceremonial in their 
own language and according to the French system, 
and into which from time to time they admitted their 
fellow-prisoners by initiation. Most, probably the great 
majority, of these Lodges were held without any 
warrant or authority whatever, and although they are 
believed to have generally confined themselves to the 
admission of their own countrymen, there is no doubt, 

* Vide "Freemasons' Magazine," 1862, Vol. II,, p. 329. 
t Vide "Freemasons' Quarterly Review," 1843, P- 324- 


that in some cases they initiated, or accepted as Joining 
Members, natives of the towns in which they had 
estabhshed their Lodges. 

The perusal of the minute-books, — for they doubt- 
less kept such— and other records of these Prisoners' 
Lodges, would prove exceedingly interesting, could 
they be obtained, for Bro. R. F. Gould, in his " History 
of Freemasonry" (Chap. XXX., p. 407), refers to the 
existence, in the archives of the Grand Orient of 
France, of a number of documents formerl)' belong- 
ing to these Lodges, which contain very \aluable 
information. After repeated applications made in re- 
cent years to inspect these records, the French Masonic 
authorities at length declared, that they had no know- 
ledge whatever of any such documents, but promised 
to communicate any information on the subject, which 
a classification of the archives, then in progress, might 
bring to light. This promise still remains unfulfilled, 
so that it must be taken for granted that nothing has 
been discovered. 

But although the authorities of the Grand Orient of 
France withhold any information they may possess, 
it will nevertheless be useful to place on record all the 
details that ha\e been collected, together with photo- 
graphs and descriptions of some of their relics, before 
they are lost or destroyed. It is with this object in 
view, that the following pages have been prepared, 
and in the hope that they will prove interesting and 
acceptable to English Freemasons. 



1756. 1758. 


1759 = 1763. 

Probably the earliest reference to Freemasons among 
the French prisoners in Great Britain, is contained in the 
records of the "Antient Boyne" Lodge, No. 84 Bandon, 
into which Lodge nine French officers, located there as 
prisoners of war, were admitted as Joining Members 
in 1746 and 1747.* 

But the earliest account of the formation of Lodges 
among the prisoners themselves, is contained in a 
Report made to the Grand Lodge of England, early in 
the year 1761, by the Master of a Lodge which had 
just been constituted at Leeds. The account is as 
follows : — j- 

" Some time since being informed of some French 
" brethren (that are here in this town amongst the 
" prisoners of war) having formed a Lodge, some of us 
" went to visit them in order to examine their manner 
" of working ; and upon our inquiring of them what 
" authority they had to work, or at least to make 

* Vide Bro. W. J. Chetwode Crawley's "Notes on Irish Freemasonry," 
in Ars Qualuor Coronatorum," Vol. IX., p. 7. 

+ Fide "Freemason," 1886, p. 556, (An Article by Bro. W. J. Hughan.) 


" Masons, we observed they were not Constituted, as it 
" appears by the following account, which they related 
" to us, viz. : — That some time before the War was 
" declared there were some of our Brethren command- 
"ing French ships that were taken and carried to 
" Halifax, in Nova Scotia ; being arrived there, they 
" made themselves known to some of our Brethren that 
" reside there, who introduced them to their Lodge, of 
" which Bro. Charles Lawrens, Governor of that Place, 
" was then Master. Sometime after, they were brought 
" here in England, and Quartered at Basingstoke, where, 
" finding themselves a competent Number, they formed 
" a Lodge ; making you at the same time their due 
" submissions, which was about the latter end of the 
"year 1756, and to which you answered, they said, that 
" if they chosed to have their Lodge constituted, it 
■' would cost them such a sum ; but their not being 
" fixed in England in any place, and even not knowing 
" how long their stay wou'd be in England, did not 
" permit them to be at the expence of having their 
" Lodge properly constituted ; however, they continued 
"working and to make Masons. — About Eighteen 
" months after. Part of them were removed from Bas- 
" ingstoke and ordered to Petersfield : These finding 
" themselves a sufificient Number, formed a Lodge there, 
" and presented you, they said, their due submissions 
" for the same, which was about the beginning of the 
"year 1758; but they never had an answer to them. — 
" Notwithstanding that, thinking, they said, that by 
"your silence you approved their work, the}- continued 
" working and making Masons until! the middle of the 
•'year 1759, that they were again changed of Quarters, 
" as were also those remaining at Basingstoke, and 
" ordered to different Places, viz., some were sent to 


" Darby, others to Pontefract, others here in this town 
" (Leeds), and others were exchanged and sent to 
" France, those that are in this Place, being part of 
" those that remained at Basingstoke and part of those 
" that were made at Petersfield, formed a Lodge about 
"the latter end of the year 1759, and have worked and 
" made Masons untill the present time : This is what 
" they have told us upon our asking them if they were 
" Constituted, and which we have thought proper and 
" our duty to acquaint you with, that you may not be 
" ignorant of what passes in this Place ; the more so, 
" because we find that they don't work with good 
" harmony amongst themselves, for we hear that it is 
" four months since that the Master of that french 
" Lodge and his two Wardens fell out, upon which they 
" parted. — The two Wardens with their Secretary formed 
" a Lodge by themselves, which they held at the Turks 
" head ; and the Master with the rest of the Members 
"formed another at the Talbot. Our Bro.'' Bastide and 
" other Brethren being acquainted with their Quarrel, 
" used their utmost endeavours to reconcile them ; but 
■' to no purpose ; for neither of them wou'd come to any 
" reassociation, but exclude one another from each of 
" their Lodges ; so that nothing but animosity has 
" reigned amongst them since ; making Masons in spite 
" of one another in such a Manner, that Masonry suffers 
" much by their proceedings. And we have proofs as 
" those at the Turks Head have made people Masons 
" whom we wou'd not have for many good reasons." 

The differences between the French Brethren at Leeds 
were subsequently settled, and a complete reconciliation 
effected. Previous to their quitting the country at the 
peace in 1763, (the Seven Years' War was terminated 


by the Treaty of Paris, signed February lOth, 1763) 
they returned their thanks to the Brethren of the 
"Talbot" Lodge in a very elegant writing out name 
of all the French Brother Visitors, this was answered 
in no less elegant manner by Bro. Thos. Wolrich, out 
name of all the Brethren of this Lodge. The French 
visitors are 

Brother Frederick Pain, 
Odon la Porte, 
Fran5ois du Pree, 
Fran9ois Fournett, 
Etienne la Porte, 
Dominique Mazet. 

These Lodges at Basingstoke, Petersfield and Leeds, 
seem to have been established and worked without any 
proper authority, and are believed to be the earliest of 
the French Prisoners' Lodges in England, of which 
any record remains. It is probable that the}' did not 
confine themselves to admitting their own countrymen, 
but initiated Englishmen also, which led to the com- 
plaint of the Leeds Brethren in the foregoing Report. 




In the year 1762 a Warrant was granted by the Grand 
Lodge of All England, to a number of French prisoners 
of war at York. 

The following account of this Lodge appears in the 
Records : — * 

"No. I. Anno Secundo. Brother Drake, G.M. 

" On the loth. day of June 1762 a constitution or war- 
" rant was granted unto the following Brethren, French 
" Prisoners of War on their Parol (viz.) Du Fresne, 
" Le Pettier, Julian Vilfort, Pierre Le Villaine, Louis 
" Brusle, and Francis Le Grand, Thereby enabling them 
" and others to open and continue to hold a Lodge at 
" the sign of the Punch Bowl in Stonegate in the City 
" of York and to make New Brethren as from time to 
" time occasion might require. Prohibiting nevertheless 
" them and their successors from making anyone a 
" Brother who shall be a subject of Great Britain or 
" Ireland, which said Lodge was accordingly opened 
" and held on the said lOth. day of June and to be 
" continued regularly on the second Thursday in every 
" month or oftener if occasion shall require." 

* Vide Gould's "History of Freemasonry," Chap. XVIII., p. 418. 


It is quite possible that the " prohibition " contained 
in the foregoing extract, was due to the admission of 
Englishmen into the Leeds Lodge already referred to, 
and which the York Grand Lodge was anxious to 

This French Prisoners' Lodge at York could only 
have had a very short life, as eight months after the 
date of the Warrant, peace was proclaimed, and the 
Brethren were free to return to their native land, a 
privilege of which they no doubt availed themselves. 

The foregoing fragments of records contain all the 
information that is available at the present time, 
relative to the French Prisoners' Lodges which existed 
in England during the eighteenth century. It is almost 
certain that other similar Lodges were established in 
different parts of the country, particulars of which, as 
well as further details of those already mentioned, it 
is to be hoped may yet be discovered. 



"5)e £a §?t6e£ife." 



In the year 1758 the Grand Lodge of the Three 
Globes (zu den drei Weltkugeln) in Berhn, granted a 
Warrant for a French Lodge to meet in that city — 
without the right of initiating — to Gabriel de Lernais, 
a French prisoner residing there on parole.* 

This Lodge, which was distinguished by the name 
of " Fidelity," most probably consisted exclusively of 
French prisoners. It is not known how long it con- 
tinued to hold its Meetings, but it no doubt died out 
at the termination of the Seven Years' War in 1763, 
if not earlier. 

This Lodge, and the one at Magdeburg, particulars 
of which follow, are the only ones in Germany, of 
which any trace has been discovered, but in all pro- 
bability many more were established by the French 
prisoners in that country, the existence of which unfor- 
tunately cannot be ascertained at the present time, 
although information may possibly still be obtained 
by renewed search and enquiry. 

_s\^ w w v>f Vof vy jnXS. 
* Vide Gould's "History of Freemasonry," Chap. XXVII., p. 243. 


""^arfaife "gitnton." 
(■g»erfccf "gtntfi?.) 


A NUMBER of French prisoners of war were confined 
in this Prussian fortress from the year 1757 onwards, 
and man}' of them became members of the local Lodge 
" de la F61icite," established there in the year 1761* 

In the same year the prisoners formed a Lodge there 
among themselves, which they named " Parfaite Union," 
but no information beyond the bare fact of its exist- 
ence can now be obtained.f 


* Vide "Abbildungen Freimaurerischer Denkmiinzen und Medaillen," 

Vol. I., p. 141. 
t Vide Gould's "History of Freemasonry,'' Chap. XXX , p. 406. 


ABERGAVENNY.— Interior of Lodge-Room. 

{Vide page 27.) 


infants be ^Tars et 6e "^epinne." 
(@;^tC6rcn of gdars anb '^eptuxxe.) 
1813 = 1814. 

In the second decade of the present century, a num- 
ber of French prisoners of war, at one time upwards 
of two hundred, were located at Abergavenny in 
Monmouthshire ; they consisted of soldiers and sailors, 
a few of them being officers. 

The "rank and file" are believed to have been 
lodged in a room in the old Castle, and in several 
large barns, whilst the officers, who were "on parole," 
occupied private rooms in different parts of the town. 

Amongst these prisoners were sufficient Freemasons 
to establish and work a Lodge, under the appropriate 
name of " Enfants de Mars et de Neptune." Tradition 
points to a large room in Monk Street, about one 
hundred yards from the old Priory Church of St. Mary, 
as the place where the Lodge was held ; the room 
has a very handsome arched ceiling, and also served 
as a mess-room for the French officers.f It is now 
used as a solicitor's office. 

It is quite impossible to fix the year when this 
Lodge was established, but its existence in 1813 and 

* Some of the details of this Lodge have been kindly supplied by 
Bro. F. Gardner, the worthy Secretary of the "Philanthropic" 
Lodge, No. 818 Abergavenny. 

t Vide Plate IL 


1 8 14 is proved by the date of four Certificates, issued 
by the Lodge to its members, which together with 
other Masonic rehcs belonging to the same Brethren, 
have come down to the present time. 

These Certificates are splendid specimens of pen- 
manship, the designs, which in three cases are very 
elaborate, being most beautifully drawn by hand. 
They are as follows : — 

1. Craft Certificate to Benj. Plummer, dated July 20, 


2. Rose Croix Certificate to G. Laudy, dated Nov. 

23, 1813- 

3. Craft Certificate to Thos. Richards, dated Dec. 

22, 1813. 

4. Rose Croix Certificate to Thos. Richards, dated 

April 20, 1 8 14. 

They are all in an excellent state of preservation, 
the Seals in three cases being intact, and are most 
interesting as well as curious documents. All bear, 
amongst other signatures, that of De Grasse Tilly, a 
very noted Mason, who brought from America, and 
established in France in the year 1804, the Ancient 
and Accepted Rite of the 33rd Degree. A short 
account of this famous man may prove interesting. 

Alexandre Francois Auguste de Grasse Tilly was 
born at Versailles in the year 1766. His father 
was the celebrated Admiral de Grasse,* who was 
defeated and taken prisoner by the English Admiral 
Rodney, in a naval engagement off the Island of 
Dominica in the West Indies, on April 12th, 1782. 

* Vide Gould's "History of Freemasonry," Chap. XXIV., pp. 124-5. 


He was initiated early in life in the Scots Mother- 
Lodge of the Social Contract (du Contrat Social), Paris * 
and resided for some years in North America and 
the West Indies, being at one time a landed proprietor 
in the Island of St. Domingo.f 

While resident in America he received the high de- 
grees of Freemasonry, J and as early as 1791 was Grand 
Inspector of the rite of Perfection in St. Domingo.§ 

On February 21st, 1802, the Supreme Council at 
Charleston granted him " a patent certifying that he 
" possessed the degrees up to Sovereign Grand Inspec- 
" tor General ; that he was a member of the Supreme 
"Council of the 33rd degree, and Grand Commander 
" for life of the Supreme Council in the French West 
" India Islands, giving him power to constitute, estab- 
" lish, direct, and inspect all Lodges, Chapters, Councils, 
" Colleges, and Consistories of the Royal and Military 
" Order of Ancient and Modern Freemasonry over the 
" surface of two hemispheres." || 

He proceeded to St. Domingo and organised there 
a Supreme Council of the 33rd degree for St. Domingo 
and the French West India Islands. This Supreme 
Council had only a brief existence, for in the latter 
part of 1802, the negroes revolted for the second time 
against the French dominion, and by the close of 1803 
they were masters of the island. De Grasse Tilly and 
other prominent members of the Supreme Council fled 
to France, and on September 22nd, 1804, established in 

* Vide Gould's "History of Freemasonry," Chap. XXIV., p. 125. 

t Ibid., p. 124. 

X Ibid., p. 124. 

§ Vide Rebold's " Histoire des Trois Grandes Loges,'' p. 96. 

II Vide Carson's " History of the A. and A. Scottish Rite," in the 
American Appendix to Gould's " History of Freemasonry," p. 641. 


Paris a Supreme Council for France, of Sovereign Grand 
Inspectors General of the 33rd and last degree of the 
Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite * De Grasse Tilly 
occupying the position of Sovereign Grand Commander. 

The Grand Orient of France, alarmed at the estab- 
lishment and success of this rival Masonic authority, 
hurriedly concluded a treaty of peace with De Grasse 
Tilly, by which the Supreme Council claimed to control 
all the degrees from the 19th to the 33rd inclusive.f 
De Grasse Tilly at the same time was elected one of 
the " Representants Particuliers " of the Grand Master, 
in virtue of which his name appeared for some years in 
the list of the officers of the Grand Orient,;J: although 
he resigned his office as Sovereign Grand Commander 
in favour of Prince Cambacdres in the year 1806. § 

During the Napoleonic wars, De Grasse Tilly held 
the rank at one time of " Chef d'^tat-major " in the 
French Army operating in Italy, || and was subsequently 
employed as Captain of horse with the French troops 
in Spain, founding at Madrid on July 4th, 181 1, a 
Supreme Council for Spain of the 33rd degree. IT 

Probably soon after this,** the exact date is not 
known, he was taken prisoner by the British troops, 
and sent to England as prisoner of war. The four 

* Vide Carson's "History of the A. and A. Scottish Rite,'' in the 
American Appendix of Gould's " History of Freemasonry," p. 641. 

t Ibid., p. 643. 

J Vide Gould's "History of Freemasonry," Chap. XXV., p. 167. 

§ Ibid., Chap. XXIV., p. 130. 

II Vide Rebold's " Histoire des Trois Grandes Loges," p. 473. 

^ Vide "Acta Latomorum," Vol. I., p. 250. 

**Bro. G. W. Speth says, "circa 1809-10" ("Freemason," 1886, 
p. sii).— Rebold says he was "held as prisoner for a long time" 
("Histoire," p. 472), and Bro. Carson states "prisoner of war 
for many years" ("History of the A. and A. Scottish Rite," 
p. 649). 


Abergavenny Certificates are evidence that he was 
interned in that town from July 20th, 181 3, until 
April 20th, 1 8 14. The three earliest in date are signed 
"De Grasse Tilly, 33™V' and the latest " Le C!^ De 
Grasse, 33"°^" all the signatures being, without doubt, 
in the same hand-writing* 

Towards the end of the year i8i4f or beginning of 
181 5 De Grasse Tilly returned to France, and found 
his whole system in confusion. He immediately set 
about its reorganisation, " but before he could arrange 
" matters to his satisfaction, he was compelled to leave 
"Paris in 18 16, it is said, to avoid being arrested for 
"debt,"! and did not return until early in 1818. 
During his absence matters had not improved, but he 
still hoped to heal all the differences and place affairs 
upon a satisfactory footing. His efforts were, however, 
all in vain, there was a division in the Supreme Council, 
part of the members under Count Lallemand retiring, 
and establishing a new Supreme Council in opposition. 
De Grasse Tilly finding his authority gone, resigned 
his office of Sovereign Grand Commander for the 
second time, Count Decazes being elected to that 
office in September, i8i8.§ 

Soon after this " he disappeared from public view 
" and was heard of no more ; when and where he 
"died is not known." || 

* Certificates of the A. and A. Rite in the Leicester Collection, dated 
June 3rd, 1816, and December 22nd, 1818, are also signed by 
him as " Le Cte De Grasse." 

t Vide Gould's "History of Freemasonry," Chap. XXV., p. 171. 

+ Ibid., Chap. XXIV., p. 130. 

§ Vide Rebold's " Ilistoire des Trois Grandes Loges," pp. 474-5. 

II Vide Carson's "History of the A. and A. Scottish Rite," p. 650. 


The earliest in date of the four Abergavenny Cer- 
tificates was sjranted to Brother Benjamin Plummer, 
a Joining Member of the Lodge. It is a parchment 
document, i6 inches by 14 inches, and was exhibited 
by Bro. W. J. Hughan at the ShankHn Masonic Ex- 
hibition in the year 1886. It subsequently came into 
the possession of the writer, and was presented by 
him to the Worshipful Master and Brethren of the 
"Philanthropic" Lodge, No. 818 Aberga\enn\'. It now 
hangs, a treasured relic, upon the walls of their Lodge- 

The design of this Certificate is a copy of one of 
the ordinary engraved French types of a century ago. 
It is very similar to that of Richards {I'ide Plate IV.) 
but much inferior to it in execution. French Certifi- 
cates of that period, although much more varied in 
design than those issued by the Grand Lodge of 
England, have however certain characteristics which 
are common to most. At the head is generally de- 
picted a clouded canopy, containing representations 
of the Sun, Moon and Stars, together with an irradiated 
Triangle. On either side of the Certificate is a lofty 
Pillar, with capital, that on the sinister side bearing 
the letter "B" and that on the dexter side the letter "J." 
At the foot, ascended by three, five or seven steps, 
is a platform of squares, upon which are spread the 
Working Tools and other Masonic emblems. Figures 
of Minerva, Justice, Truth, as well as Faith, Hope 
and Charity, are also frequently represented. There 
are, of course, very many exceptions to this general 

The following is a transcript of the document : 



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In the foregoing transcript the original spelling is 
retained, and it is a matter for surprise that there 
should be so few errors. The reference to " St. John 
of Scotland " is interesting, and it will be noticed that 
the English portion is not an exact translation of the 
French. There are some other peculiarities to which 
attention should also be directed, as they are not 
generally seen on English Certificates. Thus, the date 
and place of birth, together with the profession of the 
recipient, are given ; — the French Masonic date is used, 
" 20th day of the 5th month," corresponding to July 
20th, the year with the French Masons commencing 
with the month of March ; — and the Certificate is 
signed, as was customary in France at that time, by 
all the Officers and by some, if not all, of the ordinary 
members of the Lodge. Some of the Officers, such as 
the Orator, Expert, Keeper of the Seals, Archivist and 
Hospitaller, bear names quite unknown in English 
Masonry, but it is very possible that the work of 
these Brethren, is carried out under the English Con- 
stitution by the Chaplain, Deacons, Secretary and 

Brother Plummer appears to have been the twenty- 
sixth member registered in the Lodge, that number 
being used by the " Garde des Sceaux." 

Benjamin Plummer, to whom this Certificate was 
granted, was a very distinguished Mason, his Masonic 
career being as follows : — * 

He was initiated in the " Royal Athelstan " Lodge, 
No. 10 (now 19) "Antients," London, on June 4th, 1798. 

* Partly taken from a communication by Bro. H. Sadler to " The 
freemason," 1886, p. 511. 


He presided over the Lodge as Master, resigning his 
membership in 1805. He re-joined in 1809, and paid 
to December, 1818. 

He was appointed Grand Sword Bearer of the 
"Antients" Grand Lodge in 1804, Junior Grand War- 
den in 1805, and Senior Grand Warden in 1806. 

At the Union in 18 14 he was appointed Past Senior 
Grand Warden of the United Grand Lodge of Eng- 
land, and was present at the Meeting of the Grand 
Lodge held March 8th, 181 5. 

He joined the French Prisoners' Lodge " Paix 
D6sir6e " at Wincanton, his Certificate being dated 
November 22nd, 1810. 

He also joined the "Royal Naval" Lodge, No. 57 
(now 59) "Moderns," London, in 181 1, and the French 
Prisoners' Lodge " Enfants de Mars et de Neptune " 
at Abergavenny, his Certificate of Membership in the 
latter Lodge being dated July 20th, 181 3. 

On October 2nd, 1799, he was exalted to the Royal 
Arch Degree under the "Antients," and in 181 2 joined 
the same Order under the " Moderns." 

He held the office of Superintendent Grand Com- 
mander of Knights Templar for Wales in 181 3, 
occupied the post of Grand Expert of England under 
H.R.H. the Duke of Kent in 18 14, and was a 
member of the " Baldwyn " Encampment at Bristol, 
his Certificate, dated 18 16, being in the writer's 

On two of his Certificates Bro. Plummer is described 
as " Commercial Agent,'' and his membership of so 
many Lodges and Chapters may be accounted for by 
the fact, that he was either an agent for, or a dealer 
in. Masonic clothing and paraphernalia. In the ac- 
counts of the first "Philanthropic" Lodge, No. 658 


" Gaspard Laudy Commissaire des Guerres, ne le 
"8 Juillet 1768 a Lun^ville, departement de la Meurthe, 
" Reconnu instruit dans les trois hauts Grades prec6- 
" dents, apres avoir juge en outre de sa capacity par 
" une scrupuleuse information de sa conduite Magon ^"^^ 
" et de ses moiurs, nous avons declare et ddclarons le 
"T.-. C.'. F.'. Gaspard Laudy etre eleve au Grade de 
"Ch« de L'Aigle Parfait et S^^ P.-. M.-. L.-. sous le 
" Titre de R:. C.'. d'heredon, parir, par lui, jouir 
" de toutes les Prerogatives attachdes a ce grade 
" respectable sur toute la Surface de la Terre. 

" A ces causes, nous lui avons delivre le present Bref 
" auquel foi doit etre ajoutee pour lui servir et valoir 
'■ en tant que de besoin ; et pour eviter toute surprise 
" nous I'avons fait accepter et signer par lui T.'. Ch/. 
" et P.-. F.'. Gaspard Laudy. 

"BEN I soit celui qui le Reconnaitra, I'honorera et 
" le soulagera dans ses besoins et qu'elle felicite pour 
" nous a ce prix si desirable, de pouvoir souvent nous 
" acquiter d'obligations aussi sacrees et aussi flatteuses 
" pour un P.". M.\ 

" DONNE A L'O* d' Abergavenny (Montmouthshire 
" Angleterre) le 30 du 9? Mois nomme Tisri 5574 cor- 
" respondant au 23 Novembre 1813. 

®De Grasse Tilly. Dubourg. 
Le G:^ Inq^ Sub^<= 
E. Pascal de St. Jitery. Lampo. 
31™ G.-. I.-. 31 « 

R.-. C.-. 
left margin : " Accepte le Present Bref. 
G. Laudy?) 


" We Alexandre Frangois Auguste De Grasse Tilly 
" Honorary Sovereign Grand Commander ad vitam. 
" for France &c. &c. &c. Deputy Grand Master of the 
" Grand Orient of France, &c. &c. &c. 


" On account of the zeal and eagerness to proceed 
" to the perfect point of Masonry shewn by our Very 
" Worshipful and Perfect Brother Gaspard Laudy, war 
"commissary, born July 8th, 1768 at Luneville depart- 
" ment of the Meurthe, already well versed in the three 
" preceding high degrees, and after having fully tested 
" his suitability by a thorough enquiry into his Masonic 
" conduct and general behaviour, we hereby declare 
" the Very Dear Brother Gaspard Laudy exalted to the 
" degree of Knight of the Eagle, Perfect and Sovereign 
" Prince Freemason, under the title of Rose Croix of 
" Heredom, in order that he may enjoy all the preroga- 
"tives belonging to this worshipful degree throughout 
" the world. 

" For this purpose, we have granted him the present 
" Certificate, which must be faithfully recognised so as 
" to be of service to him in case of need, and to pre- 
" vent any misuse thereof, we have caused this Certificate 
" to be signed by our Very Dear and Perfect Brother 
" Gaspard Laudy. 

" Blessed be he who shall receive, honor and assist 
" him in case of need, and what pleasure for us, in 
" return, to repay frequently an obligation so sacred 
" and flattering for a Prince Mason. 

" Given at the Orient of Abergavenny, (Monmouth- 
" shire England) the 30th day of the 9th month called 
"Tisri 5574, corresponding to November 23rd, 181 3." 


The Brother— Gaspard Laudy— to whom this Certi- 
ficate was granted, returned to France at the conclusion 
of the war, and subsequently joined the Paris Lodge 
'' Des Philonomes," the following endorsement appear- 
ing on the back of the Certificate : — 

" Le huitieme jour du onzieme mois 5827, la L/. 
" des Philonomes a afifilie a ses travaux le f.'. Laudy 
" (Gaspard). 

" A . Louvet. 
"par Mand.' de L.-. L.-. Secret? g?' 

" Russie. Paila. Bonipard. Marisceaux. 

"M.-. Rx.-. V.-. S.-.P.-.R.-.-l- 

•• or.-. off.-, du G.-. o.-. de f.-. 2"="^ surv.-. 

Bazot. * 
off.-, du g.-. o.-. /. Vignal. 

(The Lodge " des Philonomes " has accepted as a 
Joining Member Bro. Gaspard Laudy, on the 8th day 
of the nth month 5827.) 

From this endorsement it is quite evident, that the 
French Masonic authorities recognised the validity of 
these Prisoners' Lodge Certificates. 

The pair of Certificates, Craft and Rose Croix, 
granted to Thomas Richards are very curious and 
interesting ; they are both beautifully executed by 
hand, and exceedingly well preserved. This Brother, 
who is described as a Merchant, and a native of Aber- 
gavenny, was only a Joining Member of the French 
Lodge. He was initiated in Lodge No. 144 "Antients," 

* E. F. Bazot was a distinguished French author, and was made an 
Officer of the Grand Orient of France in 1826. 


f I ,..^;,;^.r^ 

ABERGAVENNY.- Richards' Lodge Certificate, 

( Vide Daee d.i.) 


Merthyr Tydvil, (now the " Loyal Cambrian " Lodge, 
No. no), on August 3rd, 1813, taking his subsequent 
degrees in September and November of the same year ; 
he was therefore a Master Mason before he joined the 
French Lodge, the " loth month" of his Certificate 
corresponding with the month of December. 

The Craft Certificate, which shews that Richards 
was No. 45 on the Lodge Register, is very similar in 
design to Plummer's, previously described, but much 
superior to it in excellence of penmanship. It is a 
parchment document, wholly executed by hand, 17^ 
inches by 14 inches in size, and has the Seal intact, 
enclosed in a tin box. It is signed by fourteen mem- 
bers, amongst whom are the following Officers, in 
addition to those whose signatures are affixed to 
Plummer's Certificate, viz. : Master of the Ceremonies, 
Inner Guard (Le garde des portes), and Tyler (Le 
preparateur). The following is a transcript of the 
document : — * 


A.-. L.-. G.-. D.-. G.-. A.-. D.-. L'U.". 

A TT.-. LL.-. MM.-. RR.-. Rdpandus 
sur la surface de la terre. 


Nous Vdndrable et officiers de 
la R .'. □ .'. S* Jean sous le 
titre distinctif des Enfants de 
Mars et de Neptune k L'O!^ 
en Angleterre, certifions et attestons 
que le T.'. Ch.-. f.-. Thomas Richards 

T.-. the G.-. of the G.-. A.", of the U.-. 

To all whom it may concern. 


We Master and officers of our Lodge of 
free and accepted Masons, dedicated 
to St. John, under the title of Children 
of Mars and Neptune, regularly as- 
sembled in the Town of Abergavenny 
Montmouthsire in England ; do hereby 
certify that BrotherThomas Richards Mer- 

Vide Plate IV. The original lielongs to the private collection of the writer. 


negociant agi de 39 ans natif 
d'Abergavenny, possMe le 3^ 
grade symbolique, que son z^le 
et la purete de ses mcEurs I'ont 
faits cherir de TT/. ses ff.'. ; en foi 
de quoi nous lui avons delivre le 
present Certificat et pour qu'il 
ne puisse servir qu'au dit { .: 
Richards nous lui avons fait 
apposer sa signature en marge 
ne varietur, afin qu'il receive 
joie satisfaction et secours s'il 
se trouvait dans le besoin, offrant 
le meme retour k chaque f.'. qui 
se presentera de votre part. 

Fait et delivre dans un lieu 
eclaire ou regnent la Paix, le 
Silence et- la Charite le 22" 
jour du 10™'' mois de Pan de 
la V.-. L.-. 5813. 

chant is a Regular Master Mason and 
that during his stay with us has Be- 
haved in every respect as a true 
and faithful brother. In Witness 
whereof, we have delivered him the 
present Certificate and that it 
might not Be made an improper use 
of, have caused our said Brother 
to write his name in the margin, 
A'e varietur. Begging you to 
give him Joy, satisfaction and 
assistance and promising to do 
the same to every lawful Bro- 
ther who may come from your 

Given under our hand 
and seal this 22*?' day of the 
10'^ month A.-. L.-. 5813. 

Le ler Sur* 



Le 2eme Sur* 

E. Deprinche. 

De Grasse- Tilly. 

Ormier du Medie. 

R.-. C.-. 


3I« g<i Inqy 

Le I" Expert. 


Le 2 e Expert. 



P''f Loupy. 


r.\ c.-. 


K.-. H.-. 

Le Mtre des Ceremies. 

Le Tresorier. 


c:. de Barral. 



R.-. C.-. 


S.-. P.-. R.-. C.-. 

Le garde des portes. 

Le Preparateur 




E. Pascal de St.Juery. ^< 

\ M.-. 


■jieme gd I^qr / 

( 1. 





In right margin: Par Mandement de la R.-. 

□ .•. Le Secretaire. Menard. /^ 

In left margin : Scelle et timbre par nous garde des Sceaux 
et Archives. (No. 45). G. Laudy. 
Ne Varietur. 

Thomas Richards. 


The Seal* is of red wax, two inches in diameter, 
affixed to narrow light blue ribbon, and enclosed in 
a tin box ; the device on the Seal is a " Circle enclos- 
ing an equilateral triangle," the name of the Lodge 
"Enfans de Mars et de Neptune" being on the circle. 
The Lodge Stamp in red ink is placed in the left 
margin of the Certificate. 

Richards' Rose Croix Certificate, a parchment docu- 
ment 11^ inches by 15)^ inches, is very different in 
design from the one granted to Gaspard Laudy, pre- 
viously described. At the top and bottom of the 
document are a number of hieroglyphics, of which it 
now quite impossible to give the meaning, and it is 
signed by fifteen members of the Chapter. It would 
appear from the Certificate that the degree was con- 
ferred upon Richards in the Abergavenny Chapter, on 
the Register of which he stands as No. 39, and it is 
very probable that this was among the last, if not 
the very last, issued by the Chapter, as within forty 
days — on May 30th, 18 14 — the treaty of peace was 
signed at Paris, and the French prisoners were free 
to return to their native land. 

The following is a transcript of this Rose Croix 
Certificate : — f 

* Vide Frontispiece. 

t Vide Plate V. The original belongs to the private collection of the 


A .-. L .-. G .-. 


G.-. A.-. D.-. L'U .-. 

S'." Chap-.- des Enfans de Mars & de Neptune h 1'0» d'Abergavenny 
(Montmouthsire, Angleterre) regulierement constitue sous les Auspices du S|° 
Chap.-, et du grand directoire des rites reussis et acceptes de France k TT.-. 
LL.-. SS.-. PP.-. MM.-. LL.-. connus sur la surface du Globe. 


Nous SS.-. PP.-. MM.-. LL.-. RR.-. CC.-. 
convoques et assembles dans un lieu 
ou regnent la Foi, I'Esperance et la 
Charite ; vu le zhXe et Tempressement 
pour parvenir au grade et point par- 
fait de la M'." du T.-. C.-. et P.-. F.-. 
Thomas Richard Negociant Ne k 
Abergavenny ( Montmouthsire ) Re- 
connu instruit dans les trois 
hauts Grades precedents, aprfes 
avoir juge en outre de sa capacite 
par une scrupuleuse Information 
de sa conduite Macon 1!"= et de 
ses mcEurs tant en □ .-. qu'au dehors ; 
nous d'un commun accord soussignes 
avons declare et declarons le T.-. 
C.-. F.-. Richard etre membre de notre 
S'." Chap.-, et Ch^.y de I'Aigle Parfait 
et S'." P.-. M.-. L.-. sous le titre de R.-. 
C". d'Heredon ; pour lui jouir de toutes 
les prerogatives attachees k ce grade 
respectable sur toute la surface 
de la Terre. 

A ces causes nous lui avons 
delivre le present Bref, auquel foi 
doit etre ajoutee pour lui servir 
et valoir en tant que de besoin 
et pour eviter toute surprise 
nous I'avons fait accepter et signer 
par lui T.-. Ch.-. et P.-. F.-. Richard. 

We Free Accep.-. S'.° P.-. MM.-. 
R.-. C.-. Summoned and assembled 
in a place Wherein reign Faith, Hope 
and Charity ; seeing the Zeal and 
eagerness that our most D"- and 
P.-. B.-. Thomas Richard Merchand 
born at Abergavenny (Montmouthshire) 
has to attain the degree and perfect 
point of masonry he being acknow- 
ledged by us to be instructed in the 
three precedent degrees, having be- 
sides judged of his abilities by a 
scrutinised enquiry of his masonic 
conduct and moral parts both 
within and without the □ .-. We whose 
names are hereunder written have de- 
clared and do hereby unanimously declare 
our M.-. D.-. B.-. Thomas Ricard to be a 
member ofourS;lCh.-. Knight of the Perfect 
Eagle and Free accep.-. S'" P.-. M.-. under 
theTitleofR.-. -i-.-.of Heredon,thathemay 
enjoy all the prerogatives attached to that 
respectable degree all over the world. 

With regard to the said causes, we 
have delivered unto his own hand the 
present certificate to which Faith must 
be added so as to be of service and va- 
lidity to him in all needful cases, and 
to avoid all kind of surprise or that 
an improper use may be made 

■po' !■••<■ *• '• /•<•"<' 

1' '-^ 




I r- 



'.' r- - 


, - 





1^ : 



K -. 


.-!?^ T. 



J-- i-7~ 




L ^^ 


B6nit soit celui qui le re- 
connaitra, I'honorera et le soula- 
gera dans ses besoins et quelle fe- 
licitt^ pour nous k ce prix si desir- 
able de pouvoir souvent nous ac- 
quiter d'obligations aussi sacrees 
et aussi flatteuses pour un P.\ M/. L.\ 

Donn^ h. \'0\ d' Abergaven- 
ny le 20" Jour du 2« Mois M 1?" 
I'An de la V.-. L.-. 5814. 

of it ; we have caused this certificate 
to be accepted and signed by our 
M.-. D.-. B.-. Thomas Richard. 

Blessed be he who shall accept 
honour and assist him in his Wants 
and What a felicity for us at so de- 
sirable a price to be often able of 
acquitting ourselves in obligations 
so sacred and flattering for a free P.'.M.'. 

Given under our hand and seal at the 
O ' of Abergavenny this 20''' day of the 2* 
Month 5814. 

De Varoncoiirt. I.-. S.'. en Exercice. Le G.'. Arch.'. 

32™° M.-. C.-. I.-. G.-. E. Pascal de St. Juery. Maret. 

3i::.g;l mq.-. 

S.-. P.. R.- C.-. 

le 2"; Surv! 

r.\ c". 



G'l Orateur. 

Ormier du Medie. Lampo. 

31= g.-. P. J.J.Samson. 31^ G.'. Inq;; 

31"^= G.-. p: 

G.-. M.-. des €.-. 

De Maucomble. 
S.-. P.-. R.-.C.-. 

\'} Exp? 

30""= K.-. H.-. 

G? Hosp.-. 
r.'. c. 

Scelie et timbr^ par 
nous (No. 39.) 

S.-.p.-. R.-. c.-. 

Le representant particulier 
du G;i M« au C.^. O' de 
France dans son G^ Chap^;|= 
et S\" d Commandeur 
honoraire ad vitam. 

Le O^ De Grasse. 

I'. Exp* 

/":« Loupy. 

G^. Tres;: 
R.-. C.-. 

Par mandement du S'," Chap.'. 
Le g.-. Sec" G^- 
F. Billotin. 
S.-. P.'. R.-. C.-. 

(In left margin : Accepts le present Bref. 
Tho^, Richards.) 


The Seal* on this Certificate is of red wax, con- 
tained in an oval tin box 2% by 2 inches, and 
suspended by six narrow ribbons of the following 
colours, viz. : white, light blue, black, scarlet, dark 
green and crimson. In the centre are a cross, com- 
passes and sector, surrounded by the words " Chapitre 
des Enfans de Mars et de Neptune." 

During the years 1 812-18 14 there was no Lodge 
on the English Register in the town of Abergavenny, 
but some of the residents had already been initiated 
in Lodges established in the adjoining towns of Ponty- 
pool and Merthyr Tydvil. Many of these Brethren 
seem to have joined the French Prisoners' Lodge, while 
it is confidently asserted that others were initiated in 
that Lodge. 

At the conclusion of peace in May, 18 14, the French 
prisoners were at liberty to return home, of which 
privilege no doubt the majority availed themselves. 
The English members of the Lodge, eleven in number, 
immediately formed themselves into a Lodge of Li- 
struction, to meet weekly at " The King's Head " Inn, 
until, as their minutes of July 22nd, 1814, state, "a dis- 
pensation or a Dormant Warrant could be procured." 

A Petition to the United Grand Lodge of Eng- 
land was accordingly prepared, being signed by ten 
Abergavenny Brethren, recommended by Lodges 
175 Merthyr Tydvil and 195 Pontypool, and sup- 
ported by the Provincial Grand Master of Monmouth- 
shire, Col. Harnage. The Petitioners nominated the 
Rev. James Ashe Gabb, as the first Master, James 

* Vide Frontispiece. 


Jones, Gentleman, as the first Senior Warden, and 
Thomas Richards, Gentleman, as the first Junior 
Warden. The Petition was endorsed " The parties 
are all known to Bro. Plummer, who will vouch for 
their respectability." 

On December 27th, 18 14, a Dispensation to meet 
for twelve months was granted to the Petitioners, and 
under this they met for about six months, the Minutes 
of their Meetings being still preserved. In these 
Minutes, under date of June 9th, 1815, the following 
entry occurs : — 

"The Rev? Charles Powell was transferred from a 
" Modern Mason in the French Lodge to an Ancient 
" in this, and regularly initiated in the first second and 
" third Degrees of Masonry, and admitted a Member 
"of this Lodge." 

It would seem from this extract, that the Reverend 
Brother had been initiated in the French Lodge ac- 
cording to the French system, but that Lodge not 
being recognised by the Grand Lodge of England, 
it was necessary that he should take his degrees again 
on joining the English Lodge. The reason for the 
second batch of degrees being "Antient," may be found 
in the fact, that all the other Brethren had been 
"made" in "Antients" Lodges. No fees seem to have 
been charged for the re-initiation. 

The Lodge was duly consecrated on June 12th 
1815, as the "Philanthropic" Lodge, No. 658, by 
Bros. Benj. Plummer, P.G.W. of England, and F. C. 
Husenbeth, Dep. Prov. G.M. of Bristol. The Vicar of 
the town. Rev. William Powell,* was installed as the 

* This Brother was still living in the year 1862, being then nearly a 
century old. [Vide ''Freemasons' Magazine," August, 1862, p. 92.) 


first Master, Bro. Thomas Richards being appointed 
Senior Deacon, and not Junior \\'arden as nominated 
in the Petition. The Lodge had only a brief existence, 
having been erased in 1828. 

Down to the year i860, two Brethren were still 
living in Abergavenny, who claimed to have been 
initiated in the French Prisoners' Lodge, so that if 
it were a rule with these French Masons not to initiate 
Englishmen in their Lodges, the rule was certainly 
broken in the case of Abergavenny. This information 
is obtained from an old resident Mason of the town, 
who had frequent conversation with the two Brethren 
referred to, on the subject of the old French Lodge. 

The present "Philanthropic" Lodge, No. 818 Aber- 
gavenny, has still in its possession some old collars* 
— blue, with broad siher lace — which were worn by 
the Officers in the French Prisoners' Lodge, also a 
number of swords,* used in their Rose Croix ceremony. 
Besides these, there hangs upon the wall of the pre- 
sent Lodge-room, an emblematical wood-car\ing, the 
meaning of which is not quite clear. These are all 
undoubtedly relics left behind by the French prisoners, 
about whose life in Abergavenny a great many interest- 
ing details are still traditionally reported. The Rev. 
William Powell, previousl}' referred to, was a sincere 
friend to the prisoners, who were indebted to him for 
very many acts of kindness and consideration. 


Vide Plate VI. 


ABERGAVENNY.— Collar and Swords. 

{Vide page 48.) 


" 5>es Jlmts "gletmis." 

fgle=u«tfe& ^rien&s.) 

1810=1814. (?) 

A Certificate granted to an initiate of this Lodge, 
is the only record of its existence that has been 
discovered up to the present time. Unfortunately, 
although the document is signed and sealed, it is not 
dated, but it was, in all probability, issued between 
the years 1810 and 18 14. 

This interesting document, the design of which is 
roughly drawn by hand on parchment, is 17 inches 
by 14 inches in size, and is entirely in the French 
language. As a general rule, these Prisoners' Lodge 
Certificates were wholly written in French when, as 
in this case, they were issued to a French Brother, 
shewing clearly that they were intended to be used 
in French Lodges only. But whenever they were 
granted to an Englishman, as in the case of Plummer 
and Richards of the Abergavenny Lodge, they were 
made out both in French and English, that they might 
serve as recommendations in both French and English 
Lodges. An exception, in the case of the Wincanton 
Lodge, will be referred to later. 

Although unfortunately somewhat faded, the Cer- 
tificate is in an excellent state of preservation, the 


large red wax Seal* in an oval tin box 2^ inches 
by 2 inches, attached to the document by a narrow 
light blue ribbon, being particularly fine. 

The recipient, Paul Carcenac, appears to have taken 
the two first degrees only, while the letter " C " ap- 
pended to four of the signatures, denotes that these 
Brethren also had only attained the similar rank of 
Fellow-Craft (Compagnon). 

It will be noticed, that in this Certificate the recipient 
is obligated to affiliate himself to some regularly war- 
ranted French Lodge, immediately on his return to 
his native land, thus recognising the Lodge at Ash- 
burton as an irregular or temporary one only. 

A transcript and rough translation of the document 
follow : — t 

"A La G.-. Du. G.-. a.-. De L'U .-. 

" L.'. T.\ R.'. L.'. S.'. J.', sous le titre distinctif de 
" la L.". Des amis reunis sdante a L'o.'. d'Ashburton 
" en Angleterre a Tous les Magons reguliers rdpandus 
" sur la surface de la Terre. 

"S.-. F.-. U.-. 

" Nous venerable, Officiers dignitaires et membres 
" de la T.-. R.'. L.'. S.'. J.', sous le titre distinctif de 
" la L.'. Des amis reunis sdante a L'o.\ d'Ashburton 
" en Angleterre, certifions & attestons a toutes les 

* Vide Frontispiece. 

+ Vide Plate VII. The original belongs to the private collection of 
the writer. 


" RR.-. L.-. rdguH^res et 4 tous les Ma§ons r^guliers 
" et r6pandus sur la surface de la terre, que le T.'. C.\ F.-. 
" Paul Carcenac, aide commissaire, est membre de notre 
" R/. attelier, qu'il possdde les deux premiers grades 
" de la magonnerie Apprentif et Compagnon et qu'il 
" a travaill^ parmi nous a I'enti^re satisfaction de tous 
" les maitres ; C'est pourquoi nous prions tous les 
" ff ". & toutes les RR.-. LL.'. de I'univers de le recon- 
" naitre et I'admettre comme tel, aprfes les 6preuves 
" d'usage, lui procurer tous les secours dont il pourrait 
" avoir besoin, offrant le rdciproque en pareille circon- 
" stance, en I'obligeant de se faire affilier aussitot son 
" arriv6e en France a une L.\ reguliere reconnue du 
" G.'. O.". de France. En foy de quoi lui avons delivre 
" le present certificat signe de nous, contresignd de notre 
" secretaire & scelle des sceaux de notre R.'. L.'. & afin 
"qu'il ne puisse ^tre d'aucun usage a d'autre qu'au dit 
" Paul Carcenac, nous lui avons fait apposer sa signa- 
" ture en marge Ne varietur. Delivre en L.'. regulifere- 
" ment assemblde le 29?'= Jour du 8™'= Mois de Fan de 
" la vraie Lumiere. 

" F; Le Villain. Deleyre:. Vif R.-. + d.'. 4"^^ I.-. C™ de France 
M.-. P.-. S.-. a I'O.-. de Cordova. 

"Martineng.-. C". /. Collinet:. C:. Roussillon. M.'. 

"/. Vigal. 
" m.-. tr.-. 

" Scelle Sz: timbre par nous L. Matk^. C:. Brunei:, c:. 

" garde des sceaux et timbre 

" de la R.-. L.-. des A.". R.-. J.H. Vallois. M.'. Secret.-. 

(In left margin : " Ne Varietur, Carcenac") 



" The very worshipful Lodge of St. John, under the 
"distinctive name of United Friends, at the Orient of 
" Ashburton, England, to all regular Masons spread 
" over the surface of the earth. 

" Greeting. Fortitude. Unity. 

" We Master, Officers and members of the very 
" worshipful Lodge of St. John, under the distinctive 
' title of the Lodge of United Friends, at the Orient 
" of Ashburton, England, certify and attest to all 
" regular Lodges and to all regular Masons spread 
" over the surface of the earth, that our very dear 
" Brother Paul Carcenac, assistant commissary, is a 
" member of our worshipful Lodge, that he has received 
" the two first degrees of Masonry, Apprentice and 
" Fellowcraft, and has worked amongst us to the entire 
" satisfaction of all the Master-Masons. We therefore 
" pray all Brethren and all worshipful Lodges in the 
" Universe to recei\-e and admit him as such after 
" the usual proof, and obtain for him such assistance 
" as he needs, offering to reciprocate in similar circum- 
" stances, and obtaining a promise from him that he 
" will affiliate himself as soon as possible after his 
" return to France, to a regular Lodge, duly recognised 
"by the Grand Orient of France. In witness whereof, 
" we have delivered to him the present certificate, 
"signed b\- us, countersigned by our Secretary, and 
" sealed with the Seal of our worshipful Lodge — and 
" in order that it may not be used by any other 


" Brother except the said Paul Carcenac, we have 
" caused him to place his signature in the margin, 
" Ne Varietur. 

" Delivered in Lodge, regularly assembled, the 29th 
" day of the 8th month of the year of the True 
" Light." 

It is very unfortunate that no further details of this 
Lodge are forthcoming, and it would also be interest- 
ing to know during what years and for how long 
the prisoners were located at Ashburton, in order 
that the date of the Lodge could be approximately 
determined. Enquiries in the town and neighbour- 
hood, however, have resulted in nothing, even the 
presence of French prisoners there being entirely 
absent from local tradition. 



"^7rats Jlmis be V^vbre." 

Cgtrue 3irtcn&s of t^e ^vbex.) 

1810 = 1811. 

A NUMBER of French prisoners of war resided in 
this Leicestershire town from the year 1804 until the 
peace of 18 14. The first detachment, consisting of 
forty-two officers, arrived on September 26th, 1804, 
others soon followed, until they reached a total of 
two hundred. Most of them were officers of the 
Army or Navy, but there were also amongst them 
about thirty civilians, probably " merchants " seized by 
the authorities, in retaliation for similar seizures in 
France by Napoleon. The officers were allowed ten 
shillings and sixpence, and the civilians seven shillings 
and sixpence a week for their maintenance, which was 
paid to them by a Mr. Farnell on behalf of the British 
Government. They were, as usual in such cases, 
" on parole," and were allowed to walk a mile in any 
direction outside the town, their favourite walk being 
what is now called " the Mount Walk." During the 
ten years these prisoners were in Ashby, some of them 
escaped, others were exchanged for English officers 
imprisoned in France, but the places of those who 


left were always soon filled, and the full number of 
two hundred kept up. They lodged in private houses 
in the town, and according to the registers of Ashby 
Parish Church, ten weddings took place between 
French officers and residents in Ashby from 1806 to 
June 1st, 1814. Some of the prisoners died, and were 
buried in the Parish Church-yard, e.g., Etienne Lenon 
on November 2nd, 1806, Fran9ois Rabin on April 
iSth, 1807, and Xavier Mandelier on October 19th, 
1808. At least two duels with fatal results are also 
recorded as having been fought amongst them, the 
victims being Capt. Colvin and Mons. Denegres, the 
latter being killed on December 6th, 1808* 

Two Lodges, to one of which a Rose Croix Chap- 
ter was attached, were opened and worked during the 
residence of the prisoners at Ashby, but whether they 
were working contemporaneously, it is impossible now 
to ascertain. 

The earlier of these two Lodges, " Vrais Amis de 
rOrdre," (True Friends of the Order) was working in 
the year 18 10, but when it was started, and when 
discontinued, is not now known. There is a tradition 
in Ashby, that the French officers celebrated its con- 
stitution by a Ball, to which a number of the in- 
habitants were invited, the hosts presenting to each 
of their fair guests, two pairs of white kid gloves, 
one pair long and the other short. 

Two Certificates, issued by the members of this 
Lodge, are still in existence, one for the Craft degrees, 
the other for the degree of Knight of the East 

Many of these details are taken from an Article by Rev. Canon Denton, 
in Andrews' "Bygone Leicestershire" 


(Chevalier d'Orient) conferred in a Rose Croix Chap- 
ter attached to the same Lodge. These documents 
are in excellent preservation, both having oval Seals* 
in tin boxes still attached to them. They are entirely 
in manuscript, and as usual with French Lodge Cer- 
tificates, are signed by the Officers and members of 
the Lodge. One peculiarity about these two Certi- 
ficates, is the fact, that they declare the Lodge to 
be under the protection of Lord Moira, the Acting 
Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of England,! 
whose seat of Donington Park was in the immediate 
neighbourhood of Ashby. It may fairly be assumed, 
that the protection of Lord Moira would only be 
granted, on the understanding that none but French- 
men should be admitted members of the Lodge, and 
as far as is known, no Englishman was ever received 
into its ranks. 

The Craft Certificate is as follows : — J 

"A.-. L.-. G.-. D.-. G.-. A.-. D.-. L'U.-. 

" Au Nom et sous les Auspices du G.\ Or.', de 
" France. 

" Et sous la protection immediate de sa seigneurie 
■ le T.-. P.-. T.-. 111.-, et T.-. R.: ¥.: Lord Moira, agissant 
" comme G.'. Maitre de toutes les LL.\ Regulieres du 
" Royaume de la Grande Bretagne. 

" Nous Ven.'. Sur.'. Offic. et Membres de la R.-. L.'. 
" Reguliferement Constituee par les frangais prisonniers 

* Vide Frontispiece. 

t Not "of Great Britain," as stated in the documents. 

J P'ii/e Plate VIII. 


0. /'^'(/Jair 

■ J '<■''' ' --.'..-.'. , — _ '.. " ^.cl . M , '" u .„ , , ,/ 







/'^ -?> ,^/iv:U. .--.„/. A /-T«,.', ^vt./*,. ,<&«./ 
-i?. j« /) .?■ .«-> -''•V' "'' * •- ■ ''' ■'- ■*' "• " *'' 



^M/r^ ^"'^"' 

yj.'_-^ -fa.!- • :/j.V 



/ ''. -' 


ASH BY-DE-LA-ZOUCH.— Jean's Lodge Certificate. 

{Vide page 56.) 


" de Guerre sur parole a I'o.'. D'Ashby de la Zouch 
" Comtd de Leicester en Angleterre sous le T.'. D/. 
" des Vrais Amis de L'Ordre. A Tous les Magons 
" Rdpandus sur la Globe. 


" APRES avoir ^prouv6 qu'il en dtait digne Nous 
" avons admis aux Grades D'app.'. Mag.'. Comp.-. et 
" Maitre le T.\ C.'. F.'. Louis Jean natif de Rouen, 
" Ddpartement de la Seine Inftrieure, ag^ de Trente 
" neuf ans, sous Lieutenant a la ii^™^ demi Brigade 
" d'infanterie l^gfere, et a fin de le mettre a meme de 
" faire de plus grands progr^s dans les Vertus en lui 
" facilitant I'entrde des LL.". ou elles se pratiquent 
" nous I'avons muni de cette planche signde de nous 
" et contresign^e par lui Ne Varietur par laquelle nous 
" prions tous les FF.". MM.', a qui il la prdsentera de 
" secourir ce F.". dans le besoin et de lui faire I'accueil 
" fraternel que nous reservons a ceux qui nous vien- 
" dront de leur part, lui enjoignant de la faire en- 
" registrer en s'affiliant k une L.". R^guli&re de L'o.\ 
" ou il choisira son domicile, ce a quoi il s'est engag^ 
" sur sa parole Maf.'. 

" Delivrd a L'O.'. d'Ashby de la Zouch en la stance 
'• du i9''P'=Jour du 9''?'«' Mois de I'Ann^e Ma9on.-. 5810. 

" Le V^n^rable. De Marconnay : S.'. P.'. R.'. +.'. ; 

" M.-. du S.-. Ch.-. de St.-. Jean du Ddsert, O.-. de 

" Valenciennes. 
" Le i?'^ Surv? Adrien ; Ch.-. d'or.-. 
" Bouvard ; Ch.-. d'o.-. 2'? Surv.-. de la Loge des Vrais 

" amis de I'ordre. 
"Zf Pitacke ; ch.-. D'or.-. 
" ffournier ; Ora.-. ch.-. D'or.-. 
"Suffert; Ch.-. D'or.-. 


" Baudiau ; ch.'. D'or.\ 

" Metry ; M.-. 

" Fontaine ; ch.". D'or.\ 

" de Zboinski ; E.". S.'. 

" D. Pierre , E.-. S.-. 

" Sapard ; ch.". d'or.". 

" Gardin ; E.". S.". 

'' Fr. de Castel ; Ch.". G.". E.". Ec". 

" Juliarde ; m.". eccos.". 

" Cognet; G.". C?'' du T.". 27°; P^^ M.".; Memb.". du 
" Souv.". Chap.". G^ de France. Memb.". fond.". 
" de la R.". L.". de la Rdgularitd Or.", de Lyon. 
" Memb.". fond.", et Orat". de la R.". L.". Les 
" Elev^s de Themis Or.". d'Anvers. 

^^ Bailleul ; Ecc". 

" Dier ; Ch.". d'c". 

" Ferassin ; C". G.". E.". 

" Segoins ; M.". 

" Lepage ; ch.". d'or.". 

"Rouet; M.". 

" Royers ; G.". E.". Ecc". 

" Pour le f.". F:. N:. Burdet. S.". P.". R.". +.". ; ChJ P° 
" M.". de la L.". de Tarente du I'^'^rg* d'Inf«:L6g^re 
" Dig^;^ de la L.". de I'Union du i^'' rg* Polonais 
"M.". de plus.". LL.". du G.". O.". de Naples 
" V(^nM« de la R.". L.". de la Bonne Union O.". de 
" Northampton, en Angleterre ; M.". honor.", de 
" la RL.". des Vrais Amis de I'Ordre, O.". d'Ash- 
" by de la Zouch, en Angleterre. De Marconnay. 
"R.". +.". V."." 

(In left margin : " Scelle et timbr6 par nous garde 
"des sceau et timbre et Arch.". Antoine. 
"ch.". d'or.".") 

(In left margin: " Ne Varietur. L.Jean.") 

(In right margin: " Enreg^ sous le N? 14 par nous 
" Secret.". Picard. ch.". d'or.".") 




" In the Name and under the Auspices of the Grand 
" Orient of France. 

" And under the immediate protection of his Lord- 
" ship, the very powerful, very illustrious and very 
" worshipful Brother Lord Moira, Acting Grand Mas- 
"ter of all the Regular Lodges of the Kingdom of 
" Great Britain. 

" We, the Master, Wardens, Officers and Members 
" of the Worshipful Lodge, regularly constituted by 
" the French Prisoners of War on Parole at the Orient 
"of Ashby-de-la-Zouch, in the County of Leicester, 
" England, under the title of ' The True Friends of 
"the Order.' To all Masons spread over the Globe. 

" Unity. Prosperity. Greeting. 

" After having proved him to be worthy, we have 
" admitted to the degrees of E.A., F.C. and M., the 
" very dear Brother Louis Jean, native of Rouen, De- 
"partment of the Seine Inferieure, age thirty-nine 
"years, Sub-Lieutenant in the nth half-brigade of 
" Light Infantry ; and in order to enable him to make 
" still greater progress in Virtue by facilitating his 
" admission into any Lodges wherever held, we have 
" furnished him with this Certificate, signed by us, 
" and countersigned by him ' Ne Varietur,' by which 
"we pray all Brother Masons to whom he may pre- 
"sent it, to succour this Brother in his need, and to 


" give him that fraternal welcome which we accord 
" to all those who come to us from them, enjoining 
"him to have it registered on affiliating himself to a 
"regular Lodge in the District where he may choose 
" his domicile, and to which he has bound himself by 
" his Masonic word. 

" Given at the Orient of Ashby-de-la-Zouch, at the 
"Meeting held on the 19th day of the 9th month of 
"the Masonic year 5810." 

The Rose Croix Certificate is in favour of the same 
Brother, and is as follows : — * 

"A.-. L.-. G.-. D.-. G.-. A.-. D.-. L'U.-. 

" Au Norn et sous les Auspices du G.\ Or.-, de 
" France. Et sous la protection immediate de sa 
"Seigneurie le T.-. P.-. T.-. III.-, et T.-. R.-. F.-. Lord 
'' Moira agissant comme G.-. Maitre de toutes les LL.-. 
" regulieres du Royaume de la Grande Bretagne. 

" A Tous les Ma9ons Reguliers Repandus sur le 
" Globe. 


" NOUS soussign(5s SS.'. PP.-. RR.-. CC.-. en vertu des 
" pouvoirs attaches aux sublimes grades que nous pos- 
" sddons, et assist^s des TT.-. CC.-. et TT.-. RR.-. FF.-. 
" soussignds ^galement ^levds a des grades dminens, 
" ddsirant rdcompenser le zele, I'activitd, les talens et les 
" vertus Ma^on.-. ddployds par le T.-. C.-. F.-. Louis Jean 
" natif de Rouen, ddpartement de la Seine Infdrieure 

* Vide Plate IX. 







fjyoJpzrriC' ^' 


W.,^.^«t,^,^^.:mc;:X.. X^,.«.;..,,,.^,,/;:.._i/..^,:,^,^,,^i.^^,,„,^^^a^,,,,,,;,,;,.;.,f;^,,.,,^ ,. U ' 

,>.. .'./,- 


'•• » 'g 3- : — ^~* 

ASH BY-DE-LA-ZOUCH.— Jean's Chapter Certificate, 

{Vide page 60.) 


" ag6 de Trente neuf ans, sous Lieutenant k la ii*2^ 
"demi Brigade d'infanterie \6ghre, dans les travaux de 
" la R.'. L.\ des Vrais Amis de I'Ordre, regulierement 
" constituee par les Magons frangais prisonniers de 
" guerre k Vo.'. d'Ashby de la Zouch en Angleterre, et 
" dans les vues de contribuer de tout notre pouvoir k 
" donner chaque jour un nouveau lustre k I'ordre auguste 
" nous avons la faveur d'appartenir, avons en raison de 
" I'impossibilite de communiquer, soit avec le Grand 
" Or.', soit avec aucun autre Chapitre R^gulier de 
" France, confer^ au sus dit F.'. Jean le grade de Ch.". 
" d'or.'., I'invitant particuliferement a se faire rdgulariser 
" en cette qualite aussitot que possible, apres sa rentree 
" en France, ce a quoi il s'est engag6 sur sa foi Mafon.'. 
" Prions en consequence celui des SS.'. Chap.-, ou il sera 
" dans le cas de se presenter pour faire legaliser le grade 
" a lui par nous confer^, de vouloir bien approuver et 
" confirmer cette promotion, et de faire au dit F.'. 
" I'accueil favorable et distingu6 que nous r6servons a 
" tous les vrais ff.\ qui, comme lui, poss6dent les plus 
" rares qualit6s et les plus eminentes vertus. En foi de 
" quoi nous lui avons delivrt' le present auquel nous 
" avons pour plus d'authenticite fait apposer les sceau et 
" timbre de la R.'. L.'. des Vrais Amis de I'Ordre, et 
" pour dviter toute surprise, avons au dit F.". Jean fait, 
" en notre presence apposer sa signature en marge Ne 
" Varietur, supplions le G.". A.'. D.'. L'U.'. de I'avoir 
" toujours en sa sainte garde. 

" Fait k L'O.'. d'Ashby de la Zouch en Angleterre le 
" 23^2"^ Jour du 12 Mois de I'an de la V.-. L.-. 5810 (Style 
" Vulgaire le 23 Fevrier 181 1.) 

"Be Marconnay ; S.-. P.-. R.". +.-. ; M.-. du S.-. Ch.-. 
" de St.'. Jean du Desert, O.'. de Valenciennes ; 


" Yen^}^ de la R.: L.: des Vrais Amis de I'ordre, 
" O.". d'Ashby-de-la-Zouch en Angleterre. 

" L' Pitacke ; ch/. D'or.-. 

"Fontaine ; ch.\ D'or.". 

"Suffert; Ch.-. D'or.-. 

" Bouvard ; Ch.-. d'o.-. 2^ Surv.-. de la Lege des Vrais 
" Amis de I'ordre. 

"ffourmer ; Ora.-. ch.-. d'or.-. 

" Sapard ; Ch.-. D'or.-. 

" Lepage , ch.-. D'or.-. 

" Cognet ; G.-. C.-. du T.-. 27.-. P^-"^ M'= ; Memb.-. du 
" Souv.-. Ch.-. G'^^ de France. Memb.-. fond.-, de la 
" R.-. L.-. de la Regularity Or.-, de Lyon. Memb.-. 
" fondat.-. et Orat.-. de la R.-. L.-. des El&ves de 
" Themis Or.-. d'Anvers. 

" Baudiau ; ch.-. d'or.-. 

" Dier; Ch.-. d'o.-. 

" Adrien ; ch.-. d'or.-. i^"; Surv. de la R.-. Z2 des vrais 
"amis de I'ordre, or.-. d'Ashby de la Zouch en 
" Angleterre. 

" Picard ; ch.-. d'or.-. 

"Pour le f.-. F:. N:. Burdet S.-. P.-. R.-. +.-. Ch-^ P" 
" M.-. de la L.-. de Tarente du 1"='' rg* d'lnf'.^ Ig" 
"Dig^« de la L.-. de I'Union du i" rg* Polonais 
"M.-. de plus.-. LL.-. du G.-. O.-. de Naples 
" Ven^i^ de la R.-. L.-. de la Bonne Union O.-. de 
" Northampton en Angleterre ; M.-. honor.-, de la 
" R.-. L.-. des Vrais Amis de I'Ordre, Or.-. d'Ashby 
"de la Zouch en Angleterre. De Marconnav. 
"R.-. +.-. V.-. 

(In left margin : " Scelld et timbr6 par nous garde 

"des Sceau timbre et Arch.-. Aiitoinc. ch.-. d'or.-.) 
(In left margin : " Ne Varietur. Z. Jean") 




" In the name and under the auspices of the Grand 
" Orient of France. 

" And under the immediate protection of his Lord- 
"ship, the very powerful, very illustrious and very 
" worshipful Brother Lord Moira, Acting Grand Master 
" of all the regular Lodges of the Kingdom of Great 
" Britain. 

" To all Regular Masons spread over the Globe. 

" Unity. Prosperity. Greeting. 

" WE the undersigned Sovereign Princes Rose Croix, 
" by virtue of the powers belonging to the sublime 
" degrees which we possess, and assisted by the very 
" dear and very worshipful Brothers undersigned equally 
" exalted to the high degrees, wishing to reward the 
" zeal, activity, talents and Masonic virtues displayed by 
" the very dear Brother Louis Jean, native of Rouen, 
" Department of the Seine Inferieure, age thirty-nine 
"years, Sub-Lieutenant in the nth half-brigade of 
''Light Infantry, in the work of the Lodge of 'True 
" Friends of the Order,' regularly constituted by French 
" Masons, prisoners of war, at the Orient of Ashby-de- 
" la-Zouch, England, and with a desire to contribute, 
" to the utmost of our power, to shed each day new 
" lustre upon the august Order to which we have the 
"privilege to belong, have, in consequence of the 
" impossibility of communicating either with the Grand 
" Orient, or with any regular Chapter of France, con- 
" ferred upon the said Brother Jean the rank of 


" ' Chevalier d'orient,' requesting him particularly to 
" have himself properh' registered in this degree as 
" soon as possible after his return to France, to which 
" he has bound himself by his Masonic oath. We 
" therefore pray those Sovereign Chapters where he 
" may present himself, to have the rank which we 
" have conferred upon him legalised, to approve and 
" confirm this promotion, and to accord to the said 
" Brother a favorable and honorable reception, such as 
" we accord to all true Brethren, who, like him, possess 
"the rarest qualities and most eminent virtues. In 
" token of which we have delivered these presents, to 
" which for greater securit}- we have added the Seal and 
" Stamp of the Worshipful Lodge ' True Friends of the 
" Order,' and to prevent its misuse, we have required the 
"said Brother Jean to place his signature ' Xe \'arietur' 
" in our presence in the margin, supplicating the Great 
" Architect of the Universe to have him alwa}s in His 
" holy keeping. 

" Done at the Orient of Ashby-de-la-Zouch, England, 
"the 23rd da\- of the 12th month of the }-ear of the 
"True Light 5810." (Common style, February 23rd, 

Several of the Brethren whose signatures appear on 
these Certificates, were Masons of high rank, notably 
Bro. Burdet, an Honorary Alember, Cognet who signs 
as Past Master, and De ]\Iarconnay the Worshipful 
Master ; it is not surprising, therefore, that the}- should 
seek to beguile the weary hours of their captivity, by 
associating together and working those ceremonies in 
which they had been interested in happier times. 

It is probable that the Lodge had not been long 
established, when Bro. Jean was admitted, inasmuch as 


on his Craft Certificate he is registered as No. 14. 
There is no means of ascertaining of how many mem- 
bers the Lodge or Chapter consisted, or how long they 
continued to work, but in the minutes of St. John's 
Lodge (now No. 279), Leicester, the visit is recorded 
on May 5th, 1813, of Bro. Kgrist Justin, "member of 
a French Lodge at Ashby-de-la-Zouch." 

It will be noticed that the recipient binds himself 
to join similar Masonic bodies on his return to France, 
and there is little doubt that the authorities of the 
Grand Orient of France recognised the validity of 
these provisional Certificates, and permitted the affili- 
ation of those who held them, to regular French 

The Brother, Louis Jean, to whom these Certificates 
were granted, was a member of a respectable family 
of landed proprietors at Rouen. Where he was taken 
prisoner, and in what year he arrived in Ashby is not 
known, but the Parish Church Registers show that he 
was married there in 1809.* 

He was one of the first of the prisoners to be 
exchanged, and went with his young wife to his native 
city, where they lived until peace was declared in 18 14, 
when his wife strongly importuned him to go back with 
her to Ashby, which at length he consented to do. He 
converted the proceeds of his property into diamonds. 

Extract from the Marriage Registers of the Parish Church of Ashby- 
de-Ia-Zouch : — 

" Lewis Jean French Prisoner of War in this Parish and Elizabeth 
"Edwards of this Parish were married in this Church by Banns, 
"this Fifth Day of June in the year One Thousand Eight 
" Hundred and Nine by me 

" William McDouall. Vicar. 

" This Marriage was solemnized / fean 

l:>etween us \ Elizabeth X Edwards, her mark. 

'ane X Anderton, her marlj." 

In the presence of K , 


on the sale of which, in London, he had to make a 
heavy sacrifice. They resided at Ashby for some 
years, Louis Jean being greatly esteemed, and there a 
daughter was born. Later on, they returned to Rouen, 
where, after twenty-two years, Louis Jean died, leaving 
his widow and daughter in greatl}- reduced circum- 
stances, owing to his mother, during his absence in 
England, believing him to be dead, having left the 
whole of the family property to her daughter, who 
dying young, bequeathed it to her affianced lover. 
Louis Jean's daughter, not long before her father's 

death, had married a young man named H , an 

Englishman by birth, but brought up in France, who 
soon died, leaving his widow with three young children. 
The two widows and the children left France, and 

took up their abode in England, where Mrs. H 

did her best to provide for their wants by teaching 
French and by fine needlework. JMrs. Jean died in 
1867, having been childish and helpless for seven 
years, yet so sensiti\e and retiring was her daughter, 
that she never sought for assistance in her sad con- 
dition, but struggled on, toiling day by da)-, to maintain 

her family. Mrs. H , who is o\'er eight}- j-ears of 

age, is now an inmate of a Hospital in a Midland town, 
where it is to be hoped she will have a peaceful ending 
to a troubled life.* 

Partly taken from an Article by the late Bro. W. Kelly, in the 
"Freemason," 1886, p. 627. 


"5)e Za justice et be Z"^nion." 
(justice anb 'gtnxix?.) 


Late in the year 1813, or early in 18 14, several French 
officers arrived in Ashby, who had been taken prisoners 
at Pampeluna in the north of Spain, which fortress, 
after a siege of three months, had surrendered to 
Wellington's troops in October, 18 13. They brought 
much money with them, part of the vast treasure 
carried away in their retreat to Pampeluna, after the 
disastrous defeat at Vittoria in the previous June. 
This money was concealed in the soles of their boots 
and in the collars and cuffs of their coats, and was 
no doubt very useful in ekeing out the weekly allow- 
ance made to them by the British Government. One 
of them also brought a dog with him, which was said 
to be the only one which had survived the siege.* 

The only evidence of the existence of the Lodge 
" De la Justice et de TUnion," is contained in an 
endorsement on the back of a French Certificate, 
issued in 181 2 to one of the above-mentioned Pam- 
peluna prisoners, by the members of a French Military 

* Partly taken from Andrews' "Bygone Leicestershire," p. 233. 


Lodge held in the town of Vittoria* This Certificate 
is a parchment document, wholly in French, 17% inches 
by 14^ inches, and is printed from an engraved plate, 
the design being of an ordinary French type. The 
text of the Certificate is as follows : — 

"A LA GLOIRE DU G.-. A.-. DE L'U.-. 

" A Tous les Ma9ons reguliers repandus sur la 
surface de la Terre. 


" Nous Venerable et Officiers de la R.\ iZH des Amis 
" Reunis de St. Joseph, k I'Orient de Vitoria (Espagne), 
" rdguliferement constitute en 581 1, certifions et attes- 
" tons que le T.\ C". F.'. Grivaut (Antoine) est Membre 
" de notre R.'. At.'., qu'il possede les trois grades mayon- 
" niques, et qu'il a travaille parmi nous avec zele et 
" assiduite : c'est pourquoi nous prions tous ceux qui 
" sont a prier de le reconnaitre comme bon et legitime 
" Mayon, et de I'admettre comme tel i leurs travaux, 
" de lui preter aide et assistance en cas de besoin, 
" comme nous nous y sommes obliges nous-memes ; et 
" pour que le present Certificat ne puisse servir qu'au dit 
" Z^'. Grivaut (Antoine), nous lui avons fait apposer sa 
" signature en marge ne varietur. Delivre en loge, 
" reguliferement assemblee, d'un lieu trfes-eclaire, ou 
" r^gnent la paix, I'union et la charite, le g' jour du 
" (5*™^ mois de Fan de la V.'. L.'. 5^/2, repondant au 
"p Aout 1812. 

"Les Amis Reunis de Saint-Joseph," established in Vittoria in 1811. 
{Vide Rebold's " Histoire des Trois Grandes Loges," p. 120.) The 
Certificate belongs to the Leicester Freemasons' Hall Collection. 


" Col. D' Ordan. L.J. Herman. Menou. 

"S.-. P.-. R.-. +. 2^ surv.-. T^« V.-. T.-. i^?; S.-. 

" Pallissier. Bagnere. 

" 2"^^ E.-. I'hr. 

" Scelle et Timbr6 par nous Par mand! de la R/. L 
" Gardes des Sceaux et Timbre Bergeron. 

"de la R.\ L.'. Secretaire. 

" Vidalot." 
(Signed in dexter margin : " Ne Varietur. Grivaut.") 

The Seal — unfortunately damaged — is of red wax, 
and is contained in a circular tin box two inches in 
diameter, attached to the document by light blue 




" To all regular Masons throughout the World. 

" Greeting. Fortitude. Unity. 

" We Master and Officers of the Worshipful Lodge 
" ' United Friends of St. Joseph,' regularly constituted 
" at Vittoria (Spain) in 581 1, certify and declare that our 
" very dear Brother Antoine Grivaut is a member of our 
" Worshipful Lodge, that he has taken the first three 
" degrees of Masonry, and has worked amongst us with 
" zeal and assiduity : we therefore pray all those whom 
"it may concern, to receive him as a true and regular 
" Mason, to admit him as such to their ceremonies, and 
" to aid and assist him in case of need, as we on our 
" part engage to do ; and in order that the present 


" Certificate may alone be of service to the said Brother 
" Antoine Grivaut, we have caused him to sign his 
" name in the margin — ne varietur. Delivered in 
" Lodge, regularly assembled, in an enlightened place, 
" where peace, unity and charity reign, the 9th day of 
"the 6th month of the year of the True Light 5812, 
•'corresponding to August 9th, 1812." 

Within ten months of the granting of this Certifi- 
cate, the French troops were disastrously beaten by 
the British under \\'ellington at the battle of \^ittoria 
(June 2ist, 1813). The town was stormed with great 
slaughter, while many prisoners and much material of 
war fell into the hands of the victors. Some of those 
who escaped took refuge in the fortresses of Pampeluna 
and San Sebastian, both of which were subsequently 
captured by the British troops.'* 

Among those who escaped to Pampeluna and after- 
wards surrendered, was this Brother Antoine Grivaut, 
who was sent, probably with man\- others, as prisoner 
of war to England, and in April, 18 14, was residing 
" on parole " in Ashby-de-la-Zouch. This information 
is obtained from an endorsement on the back of the 
Certificate just described, and is as follows : — + 

* Amongst the spoils taken after one of the battles of this campaign, 
was the Masonic Diploma of Marshal Soult. This document was 
presented in the year 1S23 to "St. Nathalan's " Lodge, Tullich- 
in-Mar, Aberdeenshire, very possibly by some Highland veteran 
returned from the «ars. It remained in the possession of the 
Lodge until the year 1850, when by the mediation of the Grand 
Lodge of Scotland, ii was returned to the Marshal through the 
hands of the Marquis of Xormanby, British Ambassador at Paris. 
The Marshal's letter of acknowledgment, when received, was 
ordered to be sent to the "St. Nathalan's" Lodge, and the 
preservation of that document should prove a far more valuable 
memorial of a distinguished Brother, than the unwarranted posses- 
sion of -,L plundered parchment. Marshal Soult died a few days 
after the Diploma was returned to him. ("Freemasons' Quarterly 
Review," 1851, p. 183, and •' Freemasons' Magazine," i86i, 
Vol. L, p. 329.; 

t Vide Plate X. 





Endorsement on Grivaut's Certificate. 

(F/(^<; page 71.) 


"Vu & affilier k la R.'. 1=1 A de la Justice & de 
" L'union le i'^'^ jour du 2^ mois de la V.'. L.". 5814 
" et a travaille avec tout le zele possible jusqu'a ce jour. 

" Or.'. d'Ashby de la Zouch le 3'= jour du 4? mois 
"de la V.-. L.-. 5814. 

" Par mandement de la R.'. rn 

" Le Secretaire. Jourdain. 
" M.-. Ec.-." 

" Seen for the purpose of affiliation in the W. Lodge 
"'Justice and Unity,' the ist day of the 2nd month 
"of the True Light 5814, and has worked with all 
'• possible zeal up to this day. 

" Orient of Ashby-de-la-Zouch, the 3rd day of the 
"4th month of the True Light 5814." 

Peace having been established between England and 
Prance by the Treaty of Paris in May, 18 14, it is 
very probable that this endorsement was added just 
prior to Bro. Grivaut's return home, in order to indi- 
cate his Masonic career and his zeal for the Craft, a 
custom very general in France at that time. 

A further endorsement appears on the Certificate 
as follows : — 

" Vu par nous chefs des hommes eclaircs a L'or.'. 
" de St. Servan, le 30^ jour du 8'' mois de L'an de 
"La V.-. L.-. 5816. 

" 2« Surv.-. Le V.-. i^Surv.'. 

" B. Eymenthorn. (?) Sire. Merlin. 

"R.-. +.-. R-- +■•• 

" Par mandement de la HH 
" /. Martin. 

" Sec.-." 



" Seen by us, Officers of the ' Enlightened Men,' at 
"the Orient of St. Servan, the 30th day of the 8th 
"month of the year of the True Light 5816." 

From this second endorsement it will be seen that 
Bro. Grivaut arrived safely in his native land and 
visited a Lodge at St. Servan, near St. Malo, in the 
year 18 16, after which nothing further is known of 
his Masonic career. 

Before leaving Ashby-de-la-Zouch for their beloved 
France, the French Masons who had been located 
there, disposed of their Lodge furniture to some Eng- 
lish Brethren, who contemplated establishing a Lodge 
at Repton in Derbyshire. Bro. G. Mugliston — an 
Ashby man — one of the petitioners for the Repton 
Lodge, and subsequently its first Worshipful Master, 
in forwarding the petition to the Grand Lodge on 
Jul}' 13th, 1815, wrote as follows: — "We have also 
" Furniture for the Lodge now ready at Ashby-de- 
" la-Zouch, the same which the French prisoners had 
" when there."* 

The Warrant for the Repton Lodge — the " Royal 
Sussex," No. 690 (now No. 353) — was not granted 
until September, 1817, from which date until the year 
1869, the Lodge continued to meet regularly in that 
town. In the latter year it was removed from Repton 
to Winshill, a suburb of Burton-on-Trent, where it 
still meets. 

* Minutes of "Royal Sussex'' Lodge, September 24th, 1S17. 


The furniture of the old Prisoners' Lodge, which is 
still in use, consists of three Pedestals (for the Master 
and Wardens) and a Canopy for the Master's Chair. 
The Canopy, which is dome-like, is supported by two 
pillars, one on each side ; it is partly enclosed by 
curtains, and the Sun, Moon and Stars are painted 
at the back. The Pedestals are of plain deal, orna- 
mented respectively with the Square and Compasses, 
Level and Plumb-rule. There is also a painted Tracing- 
cloth, dated 1812, about five feet by three feet, repre- 
senting on one side the emblems of the E.A. and F.C. 
degrees, and on the other side those of the M.M. degree. 
This Tracing-cloth is also a relic of the French 
Prisoners' Lodge. The old furniture is very much 
prized by the Brethren of the " Royal Sussex " Lodge, 
on account of its very interesting associations ; it has 
been recently renovated, especial care, however, being 
taken that it should still retain its ancient peculiarities. 



^^epsforo. fg^on.) 

There is a tradition amongst Monmouthshire Masons 
that a Lodge was established and worked by the 
French Prisoners of War in Chepstow, in the early 
part of the present centur}-. Numerous enquiries, 
however, have not resulted in the acquisition of any 
details of the Lodge, although the tradition is pro- 
bably well founded. 



1810 = 1814. 

In common with many other of the border towns, 
Kelso received its complement of French prisoners of 
war, amongst whom were several Masons. 

The following extract is taken from Bro. W. F. 
Vernon's " History of Freemasonry in the Province 
of Roxburgh, Peebles and Selkirkshires, &c.," (p. 131) 
under the heading of the Kelso Lodge, No. 58: — 

"On the Anniversary of St. Andrew, 1810, the Lodge 
" was favoured with a visit from several French officers 
" (prisoners of war) at present resident in Kelso. — 
" The Rt. Wor. in addressing them, expressed the 
" wishes of himself and the Brethren to do everything 
" in their power to promote their comfort and happi- 
" ness, after which he proposed the healths of the 
" Brethren, who were strangers in a foreign land, 
" which was drank with enthusiastic applause. These 
" prisoners resided in Kelso on parole from the month 
"of November, 1810, till June, 1814, when, upon the 
" conclusion of the general peace, they were liberated. 
"As many as 230 were at one time located in Kelso, 
" and there is frequent mention of their appearance 
"at the meetings, when the harmony was greatly in- 
" creased by the polite manners and the vocal powers 
"of our French Brethren. — In 181 1, on the 22nd of 
" June, one of the officers, by name Jean Laurent 
" Bogue, was entered an Apprentice." 


It would seem from the foregoing extract, that the 
French Brethren did not establish and work a Lodge 
in Kelso, but were content with visiting the local 
Lodge from time to time, — evidence of which appears 
in a curious parchment document, still preserved in 
the archives of the Kelso Lodge. 

This MS., 22 inches by i8 inches, contains a De- 
claration, which by order of the Grand Lodge of 
Scotland, was required to be signed by every visitor 
to the Lodge. This Declaration occupies four lines 
along the whole length of the parchment, and is as 
follows : — * 

" I Solemnly Swear by God, and as I shall answer 
" to God at the Great Day of Judgement, that I was 
'• duly entered an Apprentice Mason within the Lodge 
" adhibited to my Subscription ; and I further solemnly 
" swear, by the Oath I now take and the Oath that 
" I took, when I was so made a Mason, that I shall 
" never reveal any of the Secrets of Masonry which I 
" may see or hear in consequence of being admitted 
" a visiting Brother in this Lodge of Kelso, except 
" to a true Brother. So help me God." 

Below this Declaration are three columns of signa- 
tures, many of them being dated and witnessed by 
one or more members of the Lodge, the earliest date 
being November 20th, 1804. The first column con- 
tains the signatures of twenty-six visitors, the second 
nineteen, and the third twenty-four. On the back of 
the parchment are more signatures, the last being 
dated December 27th, 1830. 

* Vide Plate XI. 

^(pm^™™™ ■* 













■\ 'nN.^" 

^-s^ -^ 




n ■if 


--'... -'•'^^- >> 


< K 

.1:1 vi^U^wi^'t... ■ = 

i; ^ ^.' ? -vi^ l<-,: k-;^$ ^* 




Among the twenty-four signatures in the third 
column, are those of fifteen French prisoners, residing 
on parole in Kelso ; they are as follows : — 

November 30TH, 18 10. 
" H' Daguet. . S^ Sebastien. 


" J. Vallin. . Brest. 61u de Sulli a L'orient de x 

" L^ Bortinot, des arts & I'amitie • 

" Larminat, M.'. S* Fr^d^ric, orient de Boulogne. 

* " Anglade, M.-. L'o.'. de Wantage, Coeurs Unis. 

* " A. Fabre, M.' L'o.'. de Wantage, Cceurs unis.'. 
*"Fran9ois, M. . L'o. de Wantage coeurs Unis.-." 

March 24TH, 181 1. 

" Rochon. M.'. mars et minerve O. . du 5? B™ de 
" Sapeurs. 

" Jean Schott, mars et minerve ? ? 

" P. Joubert, L.'. de L'union parfaite de la Rochelle." 

December 27TH, 181 1. 

f " Ren^ de Lausiere, M. les Enfans de Mars a L'O. . 

" de Tiverton. 
f " Pierre Eulalie Pasquereau, M. les enfans de Mars 
"^ rO.-. de Tiverton. 
"Jean Regard, C.'. S. . de la L Hm la Zel6e ^ l'o.-. 

" de Bayonne. 
"Ch. Arney, M.-. M. Les Enfants de Mars & Thh- 
" mis a L'O.' de La Basse Terra He Guadeloupe. 

f "Julien Marteville, les Enfans de Mars 'k L'orient de 
"Tiverton. C.'.'' 

* Vide under the heading of Wantage, 
t Vide under Ihe heading of Tiverton. 


The foregoing list of signatures contains references 
to two Lodges established and worked by the French 
prisoners of war in England, viz. : — 

" Coeurs Unis " at Wantage, and 
"Enfants de Mars" at Tiverton. 

Reference is made to both these Lodges on subse- 
quent pages. 

Seven of the Brethren whose names are included 
in the list — Daguet, Vallin, Bortinot, Larminat, An- 
glade, Fabre and Rochoii — visited the " Lodge of 
Economy" No. 88 (now 76) Winchester, on November 
17th, 1810, whilst passing through that town, pro- 
bably from Wantage, en route to Portsmouth, to be 
embarked for Scotland.* 

Not onl\- at Kelso and Winchester, but wherever 
the French prisoners \-isited Lodges of English Masons, 
the}- were universall}' received with fraternal affection, 
and hospitably entertained. Many references to such 
visits may be found in the records of old Lodges in 
different parts of the country. 


* Vide "Extracts from the Minute Books of [the . . . Lodge of 
Economy," T. Stopher, p. 4. 


"Je C'Jlmifte. 


A Lodge and Chapter seem to have been working con- 
temporaneously in Leek, among the French prisoners 
residing in that town in the early part of the present 

Beyond the bare fact of some prisoners having been 
there " on parole," nothing now seems to be known 
as to their number, the date of their arrival or the 
length of their stay. 

In the fine collection of Certificates belonging to 
Bro. F. J. W. Crowe of Torquay, is one issued by 
the Chapter " De I'Amiti^" (Friendship), which was 
working among the French prisoners in Leek in the 
year 1810. This document was granted to an officer 
of the 84th Regiment on his receiving the degree of 
Chevalier d'Orient (Knight of the East), the last but 
one of the seven degrees recognised at that time by 
the Grand Orient of France.* 

The document is a most interesting one. The de- 
sign, which is rather uncommon, being excellently 

* The seven degrees were : — 1. Apprentice. 2. Fellow Craft. 3. Master 
Mason. 4. Elect. 5. Scotch Master. 6. Knight of the East. 
7. Rose Croix 


drawn by hand on parchment, 19^ inches by 15 inches 
in size. It is in very good condition, the Seal* of red 
wax in a tin box being also intact. 

As in the case of the Ashby-de-la-Zouch Lodge, 
already referred to, the Leek Brethren claimed that 
their Lodge was held under the especial sanction of 
Lord Moira, at that time the Acting Grand Master 
of the Grand Lodge of England. 

The claim is, no doubt, a just one, but it is more 
than probable that his lordship would stipulate before- 
hand, that none but French prisoners should be received 
as members of the Lodge. 

The following are transcript and rough translation 
of the Certificate : — f 

"A.-. L.-. G.-. D.-. G.-. A.-. D.-. L'U.-. 

" A tous les Mafons rdguliers rdpandus sur la sur- 
" face de la Terre. 


"Nous Ven.-. et Off.', de la R.-. L [I].-. Chap.-. 
" Frangaise de S' Jean sous le Titre distinctif de L'amitie 
" k L'Orient de Leek en Angleterre duement constitute 
" sous les auspices du rit frangais, et r^guli^rement 
"legalist par I'amenite magon.'. en Angleterre, en 
" vertu des pleins pouvoirs nous delegues par sa Seig- 
"neurie le T.-. 111." et T.-. R.-. F.-. Le lord Moira 

* Vide Frontispiece. The Seal is attached to the document by eight 
narrow ribbons, two each black, blue, green and red. 

t Vide Plate XII. The original belongs to Bro. F. J. W. Crowe's 


LEEK.— Pinguet's Certificate, 

[Vide page 80.) 


repr^sentant du G.-, Ort.-. M.-. en Angleterre, Certi- 
' fions et attestons que nous avons confer^ au trfes 
' C. F Simon Charles Victor Pinguet agd de 41 ans, 

natif de Montagne, Dep'. de L'Orne Chef de B°? 
'au 84'r Regt Le grade S.- de Ch.-. d'Or.-. Pour le 
' rdcompenser du zfele & de la Constance qu'il n'a 
' cess6 de manifester en nous aidant dans les Travaux 
'de cette R.\ L IZH.-. Priant tous les Vdn.-. des L IZl.". 
' auxquelles il se presentera de I'accueillir avec les 
'honneurs du grade dont il est revfetu. Fait et delivr6 
' dans un lieu tres eclair^ le 10! Jour du lO'r mois 
'de I'An de la Vraie Lumi^re 5810. 

" Le Venerable. 


Chev. d'orz. 

" Thuret. Miany. 

"Charles Leclerc. Chev.' d'o. . 2'^. surv.'. ch.' D'or.'. p.". S.'. 

'■'' Dupuy. 
"S.- P.-. R.-. + Hardoiiin. 

"Ch.-. d'or' Or.-. 

'ch.-. D'o.-. 

" Scelle et Timbr6 par Dickerins. Par Mandement 

"nous Garde de Sceaux chev.-. d'o.-. de la R. . LIZ].- 

" et Timbre. Monneret. 

"Algnier. chev.-. d'o.-. 
" Chev. D'or.-." 

(In dexter margin : " Ne Varietur. 



"We Master and Officers of the Worshipful French 
" Lodge and Chapter of St. John held at Leek in 
" England under the distinctive title of ' Friendship,' 
" duly constituted under the authority of the French 


" rite, regularly legalised by the kindness of the Eng- 
" lish Masons, and by virtue of the full power delegated 
" to us by his Lordship the Very Illustrious and Very 
" Worshipful Brother Lord Moira representing the 
" Grand Lodge of England, certify and attest that we 
" have conferred upon our very dear Brother Simon 
" Charles Victor Pinguet, age 41 years, native of Mon- 
"tagne, Dept. de I'Orne, Major in the 84th Regt, 
" the degree of Knight of the East as a reward for 
" the zeal and constancy which he has always ex- 
" hibited in conducting the work of this Worshipful 
" Lodge, requesting the Master of every Lodge at 
" which he shall present himself, to receive him with 
"all the honours due to the rank to which he has 
" attained. Done and delivered in a place of light 
" the loth day of the loth month of the year of the 
"True Light 5810." 



" "gleuniott ^esixee." 
(5)estre6 'Reunion.) 


Many of the Prisoners' Lodges referred to in these 
pages, bore names which were more or less in general 
use in France at the time. The title "Children of 
Mars and Neptune " was quite a common one for 
military and naval Lodges, while " United Friends,'' 
" Friends of the Order," " Justice and Unity," " Friend- 
ship," " Benevolence," " Fidelity," " Unity " and " United 
Hearts " were frequently used by French Masons, and 
may have been a renewal of the names of the Lodges 
to which some of the detenus formerly belonged. But 
some few of the names adopted by the French prisoners, 
of which the Leek Lodge had one, are full of sad 
significance. Thus such names as " Misfortune," " The 
Unfortunate Ones," " Friends in Captivity," " Desired 
Reunion " and " Desired Peace " are an evident reflec- 
tion of the sad and sorrowful feelings of the Brethren, 
and bear witness to their eager longing for a speedy 
termination to their captivity. 

At the back of the Certificate issued by the Chapter 
" De I'Amitie " of Leek, is an endorsement which re- 
cords the existence of a Lodge also worked by the 
French prisoners there, under the title of " Reunion 
Desiree" (Desired Reunion). 


It is quite clear that these two Masonic bodies were 
distinct and separate, inasmuch as they had different 
Brethren as Master and Secretary. It is also evident 
that the Brethren belonging to each were on very 
good terms, for the endorsement records the visit of 
a member of the Chapter of " Friendship " to the 
Lodge of " Desired Reunion." This practice of en- 
dorsing on their Certificates particulars of visits paid 
by Brethren to Sister-Lodges, was very common 
amongst French Masons at that time, and tends to 
make old French Certificates exceeding!}- interesting. 
Many very valuable and curious specimens are in the 
Leicester Collection. 

The endorsement is as follows : — * 

"Vu a la R.-. L ZD .: 
"de la Reunion D^siree 
" a Tor.", de Leek le y.\ jour du 
"S"* Mois de I'an Mac^i^ 581 1. 

"Le VW'S.-. P.-. R.-. +.-. 
" Brunei. 
" Par Mand : 

" Beguiny. S° 

" ch.-. d'or.-." 

( " Seen at the W. Lodge of ' Desired Reunion ' at 
" Leek on the 7th day of the 8th month of the \ear 
"of Masonry 58 11.") 

Nothing further is known of this Lodge. 

Vide Plate XIII. 


^^ tcL. S\. tctn.4.on. A)t^i.tee 



Endorsement on Pinguet's Certificate, 

{Vide page 84.) 



" c^es Jltttts en ^aptivite." 
(3;rien6s in i§aptivitt} .) 


Subsequent to the occupation of the Island of 
Malta by the British in the year 1800, a Lodge was 
established there, by the French prisoners of war, in 
connection with the Grand Orient of Marseilles. The 
members of this Lodge were not well selected, and 
after suffering much, the few who remained when the 
war was over, petitioned for, and obtained, an English 
Warrant for a permanent Lodge. This was No. 716 
" Les Amis en Captivite " (Friends in Captivity), 
which was the name originally adopted by the French 
prisoners. This Warrant was dated October 6th, 18 19, 
and the Lodge continued to appear in the official 
List of Lodges until 1824, although it never made 
any returns to the English Grand Lodge. The Pro- 
vincial Grand Master of Malta, Bro. Waller Rodwell 
Wright, found it necessary to allow them to work in 
the Italian language, and according to the ritual to 
which alone they were accustomed, but insisted on 
their observing the Constitutions of the Grand Lodge 
of England. 

* This account is taken principally from "The History of Freemasonry 
in the District of Malta," by Bro. A. M. Broadley ; London, 1880. 


Four parchment Certificates of this Lodge, most 
noteworthy specimens of Masonic designs and elegant 
cahgraphy, were in existence as late as the year 1880, 
and are probably still preserved in the archives of 
one of the Malta Lodges. 

The first is dated October 25th, 1812, and is entirely 
in the French language. The Lodge is described as 
" The Worshipful Lodge of St. John, under the distinc- 
tive name of Les Amis en Captivite," and was held at 
Citta Vecchia, the former capital of the island, a small 
town about six miles from Valletta. This document 
attests that Bro. Ignatius \'idal had duly taken the 
Third Degree. It is signed b\- sixteen Brethren, two of 
the signatures being followed by Masonic marks, and a 
wax Seal is attached to it by a blue ribbon. At the 
time this Certificate was issued, Bro. H. Aubin was 
Hon. W'.M., Bro. \'ardier, W.M., Bro. Danesmil, S.W., 
and Bro. Lombard, J.W. On the reverse of this docu- 
ment is an endorsement, dated December 20th, 18 12, 
declaring that the " Sovereign Princes of the Valle}- of 
Toulon" had conferred on the same Brother the i8th 
degree of the A. and A. Scottish Rite, the endorsement 
being signed by Bros. P. Pensa and H. Aubin. 

The second document is dated March i6th, 18 14, and 
is also in French. It attests that Bro. Nicholas Ataglioti 
had been perfected a S.P. Rose Croix and Knight of 
St. Andrew in the Lodge " Parfaite Union " (Perfect 
Unity). It bears a beautiful oval Seal, about three 
inches long b\' two inches broad, attached to it by a red 
ribbon bordered with black. Around the edge of the 
Seal are the words " L.\ Scozzeze della Perfetta Unione 
rO. di Malta," while upon an elaborate shield in the 
centre are depicted the Square and Compasses and other 
Masonic working-tools. The body from which this 


document emanated, was probably a Chapter attached 
to the Lodge " Les Amis en Captivitd," the M.W.S. at 
the time being Pietro Pensa, whose name appears on the 
Certificate already described. 

The third Certificate is dated May nth, 1816, and 
attests in the French language the possession of the 
Third Degree by the same Nicholas Ataglioti. It was 
issued by the Lodge " Les Amis en Captivitd," and the 
design is an elaborate drawing in water-colours of the 
columns of the Temple, surmounted by the sun, moon 
and stars. The Seal is circular, attached to the docu- 
ment by a blue ribbon, and is inscribed " L.". Amis en 
Captivite Or. He de Malthe, 36 Deg : de Lat :". In 
the centre of the Seal is a Triangle, having the Ark of 
the Covenant in the middle surmounted by the All- 
seeing Eye, with a Square and Compasses extended 
at its base ; the Triangle is surrounded by a Circle, 
from which seven points, forming a Star, extend towards 
the circumference of the Seal, between each of which 
points is a five-pointed Star. The document is signed 
by L. Nani, W.M., Jean Andre Roediger, S.W., and 
J. A. Hochkofter, J.W. 

The fourth Certificate was issued as late as Sep- 
tember 25th, 1820, and certifies that Bro. Ignatius 
Andre Vidal had filled, with honour to himself, the 
offices of D. of C. and J.W. in the Lodge " Les Amis 
en Captivite." It is of small dimensions and very 
beautifully executed. The document is surrounded 
by a border of acacia, having in the centre of the 
upper portion an All-seeing Eye, with a branch of 
lilies on one side and of acacia on the other. The 
Seal, which is similar to the one belonging to the third 
Certificate, is attached to the document by a red ribbon 
edged with green, and covered with green stars. The 


Certificate is signed by R. Stevens and twelve other 
members of the Lodge, four of whom, including the 
W.M., describe themsehes as " Knights of the Temple 
and Malta." It is quite clear, by the W.M. being an 
Englishman, that this document was issued after the 
French prisoners had returned to their native land, 
and the Lodge was being carried on by permanent 

How long, and with what success, the Lodge " Les 
Amis en Captivite " continued to work is not known, 
but as alread}' stated, it was erased from the Grand 
Lodge l^ist in 1823. 



" ^a '^ienfaisance." 


Unlike the custom in some other border towns, such 
as Peebles and Selkirk, the French prisoners located in 
Melrose had a regular Lodge of their own, under the 
distinctive name of " Bienfaisance " (Benevolence). For 
this purpose the Melrose Brethren allowed them the 
use of their Lodge-room, where the ceremonies were 
conducted in their own way and in their own lan- 
guage, whilst they fraternized with the local Brethren 
upon many festive occasions. 

The following excerpt is taken from the Minute-book 
of the Lodge of Melrose (now No. i^) under date of 
September 25 th, 1813 : — 

" The Inhabitants of Melrose having requested that 
" the building of the cistern of the well in contemplation 
" should be laid by the Lodge with the usual Solemnities, 
" the Master ordered a meeting of the Brethren for that 
" purpose ; the French Brethren of the Lodge of St. 
"John, under the distinctive appellation of 'Benevolence,' 
" instituted by the French prisoners of war on parole 
" here, were invited to attend, which the Master, Office- 
" bearers and many of the Brethren accordingly did. 
" The procession proceeded from the Lodge, and walked 


" round the Cross, where they formed a circle round 
" the foundation of the well ; the first stone was then 
" laid with the accustomed ceremonies, and the Master 
" addressed a few words of congratulation to the 
" Brethren, upon the occasion of their Meeting. The 
" Brethren then returned to the Lodge and spent the 
" afternoon and evening with the harmony and con- 
" viviality that characterise the Craft, and which were 
" so suitable to the occasion." 

Before departing to their homes at the conclusion of 
the war, the French Brethren drew up a Memorial, 
which was signed by upwards of twenty of them, 
expressive of their gratitude, for the fraternal manner 
in which they had uniform]}- been treated b}- the 
Brethren of the Lodge of Melrose. This document is 
said to be carefully preserved amongst the man\- others 
of interest belonging to this good old Lodge. 

Man\- attempts have been made to obtain the loan, or 
a copy, of this document, but without success. This is 
\ery unfortunate, inasmuch as particulars of other 
Prisoners' Lodges might possibl}- be obtained there- 
from — as in the case of the Kelso MS. — for it was 
a custom with Brethren to append to their signatures 
the name and location of their Mother-lodge. It is to 
be feared that the document is no longer in the archives 
of the Melrose Lodge, as there can be no reason wh\- 
its contents should not be published for the information 
of the Masonic fraternity. 




The existence of this Lodge is only known from the 
fact, that the Master of the Lodge, in 1810, was an 
Honorary Member of the Ashby-de-la-Zouch Lodge 
" Vrais amis de L'ordre," and his name, in that capacity, 
appears on the two Certificates of Bro. Louis Jean 
described under the heading of that Lodge. 

The Master of the Northampton Lodge, Bro. F. N. 
Burdet, seems to have been a Mason of considerable 
experience and high rank, being described as "Sovereign 
" Prince Rose Croix — Prussian Knight — Member of 
"Lodge ' de Tarente' in the 1st Regt. of Light 
" Infantry — Officer of the Lodge ' de I'Union ' in the 
" 1st PoHsh Regiment — Member of several Lodges 
" under the Grand Orient of Naples — Master of the 
" W. Lodge 'de la Bonne Union,' Orient of Northamp- 
" ton in England — Honorary Member of the W. Lodge 
" ' des Vrais Amis de I'Ordre,' Orient of Ashby-de-la- 
" Zouch in England." 

There are no traditions in Northampton of a French 
Prisoners' Lodge, but the father-in-law of the late 
Bro. Butler Wilkins, D. Prov. G.M., is said to have been 
initiated in a Lodge of Polish refugees, which was 


working in Northampton in the early part of the 
present century, and the apron he wore in that Lodge, 
a curious engraved " Finch " specimen, is still in 

It is just possible that this was the French Prisoners' 
Lodge, as Bro. Burdet alluded to above was an Officer 
in a Lodge attached to a Polish regiment, and a great 
man\- Poles who joined the French army were amongst 
the prisoners of war in England. 



"Jlmts "gleunts." 

C^e-uniteb ^vxenb^.) 

Early in the present century a large number of French 
prisoners of war were confined in the Mill Prison,. 
Plymouth. This prison was built especially for the 
purpose of accommodating the French, Spanish and 
American prisoners, upon land expressly given to the 
country for the purpose by the Prince of Wales, after- 
wards George IV., as the owner of the Duchy of 
Cornwall. The prison was very large, for at times 
as many as 8,000 to 10,000 were located there. During 
the Crimean War it was occupied by large numbers of 
Russian prisoners, and is now used as military barracks. 
The French prisoners confined in the prison in the 
year 1809 comprised a number of Freemasons, who 
conducted a Lodge there under the name of " Amis 
Rdunis," but beyond the bare fact of its existence 
nothing is known. 

That such a Lodge was in active operation in 1809 
is proved by an endorsement on a Certificate, issued 
in 1797 by the Lodge "Reunion D6sirde" (Desired 
Re-union) established by the Gd. Orient of France 
at Port au Prince, Island of St. Domingo, in the 
year 1783.* 

* Vide Rebold's " Histoire des Trois Grandes Loges," p. 76. 


This Certificate is a parchment document, 13 inches 
by 10 inches, wholly written in French ; it is in 
excellent preservation, but the Seal is wanting. 

As below is a copy of this interesting Certificate * : — 


"A la Gloire du Grand Architecte de L'Univers.-. 

" Sous las Auspices du Sert^nissime Grand IMaitre.'. 

" D'un Lieu eclair^ ou Regnent L'Union, Le Silence, 
"& La Charite, L'an de la Vraie Lumifere 5797, et le 
" 27^™* jour du lO^""^ Mois Ma^i^'^ La R:. L:. S*. Jean 
"de Jerusalem Rdgulierement Constituee a L'O.". du Port 
" au Prince, Isle S' Domingo, sous le Titre distinctif de la 
" Reunion Desiree. 

" A Toutes LL.'. RR.'. LL.-. Reguli^res, repandues 
" sur la surface du Globe.'. 


" Nous Venerable, i^J & 2^ Surveillants, OO'f;" V)Xyf 
" Masons de tous grades, d^cores de tous les honneurs & 
" R^guliferement & Fraternellement assembles sous le 
" point geometrique connus des seuls A'rais ]\Iafons, 
" Certiffions & Attestons que le T.-. C.-. F.-. Francois 
" Lescamela, habitant de S*. Domingue a ete recu 
" Apprenti Compagnon & Maitre ; qu'il a deplus ^te 
" nommd Garde des Sceau, Timbre & Archives de notre 
" R.-. L.-. pour I'ann^e suivante. Vu les preuves qu'il nous 
" a constamment donne de la purete de ses Moeurs, de 
" sa Charite envers le prochain, de son amitie pour ses 

* This Certificate belongs to the private collection of the writer. 


" Fr^res & sa perseverance a nos Myst^res ; Nous lui 
" avons ddlivrd le present Certificat, rev&tu des Timbre & 
" Sceau de notre Architecture, sous lequel il a signd 
" en notre presence pour ^viter toutes surprises, afin 
" qu'il Receive de tous les Vrais Ma9ons, Joie, Satis- 
" faction & bon accueil, offrant meme retour k chaque 
" F.\ qui se prdsentera sous meme caution & meme 
" Titre.-. 

" Fait et d^livr^ k I'orient de Port-au-Prince, Sign6 de 
" nous & contresigne de notre F.'. Secretaire pour avoir 
" plein et entier Effet apres confrontation de la signature 
•' du dit Frere.'. 

" Scelld & Timbr6 par nous Mongin. Leclerc. R.-.-l-.-. 

" Garde des Sceau Timbre & Archives M'j^ en T.-. G.-. V'.'^ P.-. S.-. 

" de la R.'. L.'. ad-hoc. Hub. Denoirbainoir. Par Mandement de la 

"/. Park. R.-.-t-.-. 2™« S.-. la Rdunion Ddsir^e. 

" Scelld par nous Saladin /", R.-. -|- .". Marvands. Collignon. 
" Toirac. M/. des C/. M.'. Sec^.« 

"G^des.-. Moreau de Lisle. Carre. 'R.-. + .-. Vauchez. 
" m.'. f ■. o:. hospitaller. M.\ 

" Sarugue. Merceron. Saladin aini. 

" ora.'. adj.'. M.'. en t.\ grade. Gerinett. 

"R.-.-f .-. tr^sorier. G^, de T"!^ 

' L. Haranedur. P" Prazoux. 

" M.-. i^ Exp' M^ En tout Grade. Laboriez. 

"S.-. E.-." 

(In dexter margin : " ne varietur 

" Lescamela!'^ 




" Under the auspices of the Most Illustrious Grand 
" Master. 

" From an enlightened place, where reign Unity, 
" Silence and Charity, in the jear of the True Light 
" S797) and the 27th. day of the loth. Masonic Month. 

" The W. Lodge of St. John of Jerusalem, regularly 
" constituted at Port au Prince, Island of St. Domingo, 
" under the distinctive title of ' Desired Re-union.' 

" To All Regular Worshipful Lodges throughout the 
" World. 


" We Master, Wardens, Officers and Masons of every 
" degree, adorned with all our honors, regularly and 
" fraternally assembled on the geometrical point known 
" only to True Masons, certif}' and declare that our 
" very dear Brother Frangois Lescamela, a resident in 
" St. Domingo, has received the degrees of Apprentice, 
" Companion and Master ; that he has also been 
" appointed Keeper of the Seal, Stamp and Archives 
" of our W. Lodge for the ensuing year. On account 
" of the constant proofs that he has given of the 
" purity of his life, his charity to his neighbour, his 
" friendship for the Brethren, and his perseverance in 
" our mysteries, we have delivered to him the present 
" Certificate, sealed with the Seal and Stamp of our 
" Lodge, under which he has signed his name in our 
" presence to prevent any misuse of it, in order that 


" he may receive from all True Masons Joy, Satisfaction 
" and Welcome, offering the same to every Brother 
" who may present himself to us with the same caution 
" and the same title. 

" Done and delivered at the Lodge at Port au 
" Prince, signed by us, and countersigned by the 
" Secretary, to have full effect after comparison of the 
"signature of the said Brother." 

On the back of the Certificate are four endorse- 
ments, which record visits paid to various Lodges by 
the owner. 

First Endorsement. 

" Vu a la R.\ L.\ des vrais amis rdunis reguliferement 
"assemblee a I'or.-. du Mole de S* Nicolas le la^fB? Jour 
"du 8^^ Mois M.-. de I'an de la V.-. L.-. 5798 et de 
" I'Ere vulgaire le 2o!!!i! Vendemiaire an 72. de la 
" Republique franfaise Une & Indivisible. 

"Par Mandement de la R.-. L.-. 

" Lafitte Jeune. 
" Sec^.=" 


" Inspected at the W. Lodge of ' True Friends 
" Re-united ' regularly assembled at the Mole de St. 
"Nicolas, the 12th. day of the 8th. Masonic month 
"of the year of the True Light 5798, and in the vulgar 
" era, the 20th. Vendemiaire of the 7th. year of the 
" French Republic, one and indivisible." 

The Mole of St. Nicholas is a small place in the 
extreme North-west of the Island of St. Domingo, 
and was frequently mentioned as a telegraph-station 
during the late Spanish-American war. 


Second Endorsement. 

" Vu Par La R.\ L.'. De La Parfaite Egalite Sceaute 
"a rO.-. du Port de Paix De L'Ere vulgaire le i6?^ 
" frimaire an y'S.^ de la RlH? f5i!? une & ind. & le 655? du 
"9?_« m.-. m.-. L.-. D.'. L.-. V.-. L.-. 5798. 

" Par mandement 
"/. Martin. 
" Sec^ 

"M.-. El.-, de 15." 


"Inspected by the W. Lodge of 'Perfect Equality' 
"established at Port de Pai.x, in the vulgar era the i6th. 
" of Frimaire of the 7th. year of the French Republic 
" one and indivisible, and the 6th. of the 9th. Masonic 
"month of the year of the True Light 5798." 

Port de Paix is a small town on the North-west coast 
of the Island of St. Domingo. 

Third Endorsement. 

" \'u par la R.'. L.'. frangaise La Candeur en instance 
" pour ses constitutions aupres du G.'. O.'. de Pensihanie 
" a For.-, de la Xouvelle Orleans le 9? Jour du 6™" AI.-. 

"Mi"« 5801. 

" Olssen. 

" Sec<;" 


" Inspected by the W. French Lodge of ' Candour,' 
" working b}- constitution from the Grand Orient of 
" Pennsylvania at New Orleans the 9th. day of the 6th. 
"Masonic month 5801." 


!i'/i^- J ^>' f 

0^ A!^ ^ 

h<^ r^- 



PLYMOUTH,— Endorsement on Lescamela's Certificate. 

( Ftde page 99.) 


Louisiana, of which New Orleans is the principal 
town, belonged to the French from 1800 to 1803, being 
sold to the United States of America in the latter 

The Charter for the Lodge of " Candour " was 
granted by the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania in 
May, 1 801, and was surrendered in the following 

Fourth Endorsement.! 

" Vu a la R.-. d] les amis R6unis a L'o de Mill-prison, 

" Plymouth le 4f Jour du 4^ Mois de I'an de la V.-. L.'. 

"5809. Stance tenante. 

" Brousse. Y" 

" + .-. 
" s. c. i .-. 
" par Mandement de la R.'. [m 
"Le Maire. 
" Sec"" 



" Inspected at the Lodge of ' Re-united Friends ' 
"held at the Mill Prison, Plymouth, the 4th. day of 
"the 4th. month of the Year of the True Light 5809 — 
" in open meeting." 

This last Endorsement is the most important and 
interesting of the four, for it records the active existence 
of the Lodge " Amis Reunis " in the Mill Prison at 
Plymouth in 1809. Of the other Prisoners' Lodges 
mentioned in these pages, there is no absolutely 

* Vide Gould's " History of Freemasonry; American Appendix," p. 471. 
t Vide Plate XIV. 


authentic information where they were held, but in 
this case there is no doubt of the fact, and it is a 
matter for surprise, that under the strict rules of prison 
life — probably much more strict than usual in the 
case of prisoners of war — the authorities allowed a 
Lodge to be held among the men committed to their 

It would be highly interesting to know if the 
governor or warders of the prison were members of 
the Craft, and in such case, if an}- of them were 
members of the Lodge or attended its Meetings as 
visitors. In spite, however, of numerous enquiries 
on the spot, no information whatever has been ob- 
tained, nor is an}'thing further known of Bro. 
Francois Lescamela. 

<")#>■: :*• 


"^a -^aix ^esivee." 
(^esiveb 'g'eace.) 


Of this Lodge very little is known beyond the bare 
fact of its existence, which is proved by the following 
two items in a Sale Catalogue of French Masonic 
Books, &c., issued in 1863, and which were stated 
to have belonged to the library of one of the principal 
Lodges in Paris. 

The list is entitled : 

" Catalogue d'une precieuse collection de livres 
" anciens, manuscrits et imprimis, de documents ori- 

" ginaux, etc., sur Les Francs-Ma9ons dont 

"la vente se fera Vendredi 27 mars 1863, et jours 
" suivants Paris. Librairie Tross 1863.." 

As below are transcript and translation of the items 
referred to : — 

" No. 43. — M^moire historique de la formation de la 
" R.". CH.'. La paix desiree, a I'O.". de Sanguhar, en 
" Ecosse, par des officiers fran^ais, prisonniers de guerre, 
"et proces-verbaux des deliberations, depuis le 13 juin 
" 1812 jusqu'au 14 octobre 1813. In-fol., cart. — Manu- 
" scrit important, rempli de timbres et de signatures." 



" Historical account of the formation of the W. 
" Lodge of ' Desired Peace ' at Sanquhar in Scotland, 
" by French officers, prisoners of war, and particulars 
"of the Meetings from June 13th., 1812, to October 
" 14th., 181 3. Folio. Boards. An important manu- 
" script, full of stamps and signatures." 

"No. 1041. — Reglements de la R.: HH de S. Jean, 
" sous le titre distinctif de la Paix-Desir^e, a I'O.". de 
" Sanguhar, en Ecosse. In-fol., br. — Manuscript date 
"de 18 1 2." 


" Regulations of the W. Lodge of St. John, under 
" the distinctive title of ' Desired Peace ' at Sanquhar, 
" Scotland. Folio. Brochure. The manuscript is 
"dated 1812." 

It appears from these two items that the Lodge 
was established in June, 1812, and held its last 
Meeting on October 14th. of the following }-ear. The 
cause of the discontinuance is not known, but it was 
probably due to the removal of some of its members 
to another town, as the authorities seldom allowed the 
French officers to remain in one place for an}- length 
of time. The object of these frequent removals, was 
doubtless to pre\ent them concerting measures for 
escaping to their own country. It is indeed quite 
possible, that the Sanquhar Lodge itself was founded 
by some members of another Lodge of the same name, 
which was held at Wincanton in 18 10, of which par- 
ticulars are given on a subsequent page. 


It is very unfortunate that the present whereabouts 
of the two books referred to cannot be ascertained, 
but all attempts to trace them have hitherto been 

One thing, however, is quite clear, that the Lodges 
held by these French prisoners were not merely casual 
Meetings, but were held regularly. They were properly 
conducted, with regularly-appointed officers, and go- 
verned by a code of by-laws especially prepared for the 
Lodge, and their proceedings were duly recorded in 
a minute-book kept for the purpose. 



1813 = 1814. 

Between the years 1811 and 1814 ninety-three French 
prisoners of war were located in this border town, all of 
whom had been officers or surgeons in Napoleon's army. 
They lodged with householders in the town, and being 
"on parole" were allowed to walk in the country one 
mile in any direction, measured from the milestone near 
the centre of the town. They usually walked eastwards 
towards Bridgelands, a tall bush in the hedge by the 
way marking the limit of their walk. The Government 
allowance for their support was administered by a 
Mr. Scott, an officer of the Inland Revenue who lived 
in the Kirkwynd, and was rather a notable man in his 
day. Much of their time was spent in fishing and 
arranging dramatic entertainments, some of the plays of 
Corneille and Moliere being acted with much spirit. 
A few of them were employed by the better class of 
townspeople, in giving instruction in French to their 
children, whilst those who had been military surgeons 
were always ready to show their skill in their own line, 
and were gratified by being asked to be present at any 
surgical operation. 


Amongst these prisoners there were many Free- 
masons, who from time to time visited St. John's Lodge, 
No. 32 Selkirk, no less than thirty-five names of 
French Masons being recorded as visitors in the books 
of the Lodge. 

On March 9th, 18 12, it was resolved by the Brethren 
of the Selkirk Lodge, that on account of the favour 
done by some of the French Brethren, they should be 
enrolled as Honorary Members of the Lodge, the 
names of twenty-three of the French prisoners being 
thus added to the Lodge Roll. 

As was the case at the neighbouring town of Melrose, 
the French Masons at Selkirk formed themselves into 
a Lodge, and conducted the Masonic ceremonies in 
their own language, the Brethren of the local St. John's 
Lodge allowing them the use of their room and furni- 
ture, and being present as visitors at the Meetings. 
Unfortunately the name adopted by the French Brethren 
for their Lodge cannot be ascertained. 

The Minutes of St. John's Lodge, No. 32 Selkirk, 
record as follows : — 

"January 13th, 1813. The Lodge being constituted 
" by the French brethren, they admitted Matthew 
" Greive an apprentice Freemason." 

"February 2nd, 18 14. The Lodge met, and the 
" French brethren admitted Nicholas Chardanel an 
" apprentice mason to assist John Currie in the officer- 
" ship (Tyler) at the meetings of the French brethren." 

The following names of French prisoners are recorded 
on different dates as visitors to the Scotch Lodge at 
Selkirk, many of whom would no doubt be officers 
or members of the French Lodge : — 


Lieut. Wilhelm von Tieman (Hanoverian Cavalry). 
Fred. Barran de Lyhirsdorf. 

Elie Maufras. 
Bernard Dubosc. 
Pierre Etienne Laurent. 
Joseph Mangan. 
Joseph Clement de Villeneuve. 
Louis Arnaud. 

Charles Antoine Leforsonnez. 
Henri Catalaa. 
Vincent Simonet. 
Jean B'? Passemont. 
Jean Fran9ois Verron. 
Jacques Manciet. 
Gerard Fouiegrives. 
Lieut. Froissart. 
Lieut. Belleval. 
Lieut. Guitaud. 
M. Salmier. 
Lieut. Nicolas Citron. 
Lieut. Jean Baptiste Joseph Legray. 
Amand Gillaev. 
Jean Bertrand St. Lary. 
Charles de Corbfee. 
Richard Harlant. 
Pierre le Coq. 


Louis Jacques Pierre Gavain. 
Antoine St. Michel. 
Charles Breton. 


1 8 14. 
Simon Timon. 
Jacques M. Pat-Veillon. 
Nicolas Chardanel. 
Antoine Condamine. 
Jean Louis Joseph Revaux. 
John Schendhutor. 





"infants 6e pilars.' 

(g^tfiren of ^Kars.) 

A NUMBER of French prisoners of war, most of whom 
were officers in the Xa\}', were billetted in the small 
Devonshire town of Tiverton in the earh" part of the 
present century. It is not known in what year they 
first arrived in the town, but some of them were 
certainly detained there until the Peace of 1814. 
Being " on parole," they were lodged in private houses 
in different parts of the town, but subject to the usual 
restrictions, being prohibited from walking more than 
one mile in any direction from the centre of the town, 
and having to report themselves daily to the local 
authorities. Many of them were men of rank and 
education, and were treated with much consideration 
and kindness by the inhabitants. 

That a Lodge " Enfants de Mars" was opened and 
worked at Tiverton, by the Freemasons amongst the 
prisoners located there in the year 181 1 or earlier, is 
evidenced by the signatures on the Kelso MS. pre- 
viously referred to,* of three Brethren who had been 

* Vitie p. 77. 


" made " in the former town, and who, on December 
27th, 181 1, paid a fraternal visit to the Kelso Lodge. 
The three Brethren were 

Ren^ de Lausi^re. M/. les Enfans de Mars k L'O.'. 
de Tiverton. 

Pierre Eulalie Pasquereau. M.'. les enfans de Mars 
a I'O.'. de Tiverton. 

Julien Marteville. Les Enfans de Mars a L'orient 
de Tiverton. C.'. 

These three Masons, the last of whom had only 
attained the rank of Fellow Craft (C. = Compagnon), 
were no doubt initiated in the Lodge at Tiverton, as it 
was a general custom to append the name of their 
Mother-lodge when signing the Register, on the 
occasion of a visit to another Lodge. 

In what year the Lodge was first opened at Tiverton 
is not known, but there is little doubt that it existed 
for some years. The first and only Master is said to 
have been Alexander De la Motte, whose character 
and great linguistic knowledge procured for him, whilst 
still a prisoner, the appointment of Teacher of Lan- 
guages at Blundell's School. He continued to hold the 
appointment after the conclusion of peace, settled 
permanently in Tiverton, built himself a house there, 
and died at a good old age, much esteemed and 
respected by all the inhabitants of the town. He left 
two sons, both of whom took good positions, but have 
long since left the neighbourhood. 

The Lodge is believed to have consisted of ten or a 
dozen Masons, who met weekly in a room in Castle- 
street (then called Frog-street), until two of the prisoners 


escaping, the Meetings were prohibited by the town 
authorities and more stringent rules rigidly enforced. 

The Tyler of the Lodge, Rivron by name, who came 
as a servant with one of the officers, also remained in 
Tiverton after the conclusion of the war, and earned 
a living at his old trade of slipper-maker, renting 
a small cottage in a court off Barrington-street. 

Many interesting particulars of this Lodge will be 
found in Bro. Sharland's " Freemasonry in Tiverton,'' 
published in 1899, from which some of the details 
here given were obtained. 



iratTepftef6. (BCCtdrof^ian.) 




Valleyfield, where this Lodge was held, is a suburb 
of Penicuik, a small burgh situate on the left bank 
of the river North Esk, about ten miles south of 

In the immediate neighbourhood are three large 
paper mills, of which the Valleyfield Mill is by far 
the largest. Its nucleus was built in 1709 by Mr. 
Anderson, printer to Queen Anne, or by his widow. 
In 1779 it passed by purchase into the hands of the 
Cowan firm, in whose possession it has remained down 
to the present time. 

In the year 18 10 this mill was fitted up by the 
Government for the reception of 6,000 French prisoners 
of war, a neighbouring mill, now the Esk paper mill, 
but then a cotton factory, being at the same time 
converted into barracks for 1,500 soldiers. 

Penicuik became in consequence active and stirring, 
and although considerably enriched by this influx of 
the military, the town suffered much damage in the 
moral tone of its people. 

The Masons amongst the prisoners located there 
established a Lodge amongst themselves, to which 


they gave the significant name of " Misfortune," a 
Certificate issued in the year 1813 to a member of 
the Lodge being still in existence. 

This document is of parchment, 14 inches by 12%^ 
inches in size, and is in an excellent state of preserva- 
tion. The design is of an ordinary French type, with 
the figure of Minerva at the foot. It is entirely drawn 
by hand in ink and sepia, and bears witness to the skill 
and patience of some French military Mason, whose 
name even is not known. Unfortunately the Seal 
is missing. 

A transcript and rough translation of this Certificate 
follow : — * 

"A.-. L.-. G.-. D.-. G.-. A.-. D.-. L.-.'U.-. 
" A Tous Les Magons Rdguliers Rdpandus Sur La Surface Du Globe. 


" Nous v6n6rable officiers et membres de la R*"!^ 
" L CH.'. de S*. Jean sous le titre distinctif de I'infortune, 
" r6gulierement constitute k L'o.'. de Valley-feild en 
" dcosse et assemblee par les N.-. M.\ connus des seuls 
" V.'. M.\ d^clarons certifions et attestons que le 
" T.". C". F.". Martin Meric, Sergent au quatrieme 
"regiment d'infanterie 16g6re, membre de la 16gion 
" d'honneur, ag^ de trente sept ans, natif de Castanet 
" ddpartement de la haute-garonne, est membre de 
" notre R.'. A.'. T.-. au troisieme grade symbolique. Que 
" la rdgularitd de sa conduite, ses bonnes mceurs aux 
"travaux nous I'ont rendu cher et r^commandable. 
" Prions tous les magons reguliers, tant des 00.\ de 

* Vide Plate XV. The original belongs to the fine collection of Bro. Fred. 
J. W. Crowe, of Torquay. 




1 /^-x t, -Jji 


V¥ / 

A... L. G.: D G A... D L' 11. M 


„ fiALUT^^ 

■■'-'■'■.'' ■ ■ , /C" ■ . ..r.- 














:.j^^W ■"'■,. 0^,-. 

VALLEYFIELD.— Wleric's Certificate. 


" france que de ceux Strangers de reconnaitre le dit f.'. 
" Meric dans les dites qualit^s, de lui accorder la con- 
" sideration que lui est due et lui pr&ter tous les secours 
" dont il pourrait avoir besoin, comme nous aurions la 
" satisfaction de le faire pour eux memes. 

" Fait et d^livr^ en notre O.'. de valley-feild en ecosse 
" le deuxieme jour du neuvifeme mois de I'an de la 
"V.-. L.\ 5813 et de I'ere vulgaire. Sign6 de nous, 
" contresigne et revfetu du sceau et timbre de notre 
" architecture pour avoir plein et entier effet apr^s la 
" confrontation de la signature du dit Martin Meric 
" qu'il a apposee devant nous Ne Varietur le deuxieme 
" octobre mil huit cent treize. 

" Lerouge. Faussie. J. Blanchard. 

"M.-.E.-. ¥.-."'=• i^' S.-. 

" Barthon. Diego Maglioni. Leforce. 

" 2™:' S.-. M.-. M.-. 

" Lemarquant. 
"R.'. +.-. 
" Scelle et timbr^ par nous 
" garde des Sceaux et timbre. 

" Laurube. 
" 5. Duduzeaux. M/. t^?;- Par Mandement de 

" M.'. s.-. Voisend. la R.-. L Z2:. 

" M.-. Mens. 

"Jean Schutt. L^. 6y^. Reg* M.-. 
"/. P. Ryckewaert. 

" -\- Cannard. Carolus Kemze. 

" I.-. N.-. R.-. I.-. M.-. 

" Narand. 

" G. Louis. Devral. M.-. O.'. 

" M.-. M.-. 

(In left margin : '' Ne Varietur 
" Meric. 


"We, Worshipful Master, Officers and Members of 
" the W. Lodge of St. John regularly constituted under 
"the name of 'Misfortune' at Valleyfield, Scotland, 
" and assembled by the Masonic Numbers known only 
" to true Masons, declare, certify and attest, that the 
" very dear Brother Martin Meric, serjeant in the 4th. 
" regiment of light infantry, a member of the legion of 
" honour, age thirty-seven years, native of Castanet 
" in the Dept. of the Haute Garonne, is a member of 
" our W. Lodge in the third degree of symbolic 
" Masonry. That the regularity of his conduct and 
" his good manners during our labours have made him 
" dear to us and worthy of recommendation. We 
" therefore pray all regular Masons, both of French 
" and foreign Lodges, to receive the said Brother Meric 
" in the said degrees, to give him all the consideration 
" that is due to him, and to render him all the assist- 
" ance which he may need, as we should be pleased 
" to do for them. 

" Done and delivered in our Lodge at Valleyfield, 
" Scotland, the second day of the ninth month of the 
"year of the True Light 5813. Signed by us, counter- 
" signed and completed with the Seal and Stamp of 
" our Lodge, to take due and full effect after the com- 
" parison of the signature of the said Martin Meric, 
" which he has signed in our presence, ' Ne Varietur,' 
" this second day of October, one thousand eight 
" hundred and thirteen." 

The French prisoners remained at Valleyfield until 
the termination of the war in 18 14, the reversion of 
the mills from their warlike occupancy to the manu- 


facture of paper being hailed with joy by the in- 
habitants, and celebrated by a general illumination. 

On a spot in the grounds of Valleyfield where 
upwards of three hundred of the prisoners were 
interred, stands a neat chaste monument from a design 
by Hamilton, with the following inscriptions : — * 




"BETWEEN 2 1 ST. MARCH, 1 8 II, AND 26TH. JULY, 1814, 











&V1, V^ XX V' 'V' XX Jiy24- 

* Some of the foregoing details are taken from the "Gazetteer of 



W^ttoxxa. (^pain.) 

" ^es gnfortunes." 
Cg^e 'glnforfunafe ^nes.) 


This Lodge, although not belonging to the French 
Prisoners' Lodges in Great Britain, is included because 
the town of Vittoria was at the time held by the 
British army, and to place on record a description of 
the very interesting Masonic Certificate, issued by the 

By the Battle of Vittoria, a town situated in the 
north-east corner of Spain, the French cause in that 
country received a very severe blow from which it 
never recovered. This town had been one of the 
principal dep6ts of the French army from the year 
1808, and their disastrous defeat there on June 21st, 
1 81 3, by the Duke of Wellington, gave to the British 
army an immense number of prisoners, as well as a 
large quantity of war material. The soldiers and 
others attached to the French army were forwarded 
in batches to England from time to time as prisoners 
of war, but a great many still remained in Vittoria 
up to the end of the year 1 81 3. 





'^/{' XjOliS Us JK/icoih rc'a-ulu. 

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>. tlii-i^&j^M^ ^ A.«:^.. 

-««i*-w-d£-«ASM6&;iljl^'B.<,^ <■ \ *i«f^* 

VITTORIA.— Palis's Certificate. 

{Vide page 117.) 


Some of these prisoners who were Masons, appear 
to have established a Lodge there in the month of 
November, 1813, under the appropriate title of " Des 
Infortunes " (the Unfortunate Ones), and to have issued 
Certificates to the founders to replace those which, with 
all other documents, had no doubt been taken from 
them by the British military authorities. The Master 
of this Lodge was Lamarque, a name famous in French 
military annals. 

One of these Certificates has recently come to light. 
It is an exceedingly interesting document of thick 
white paper, 17% inches by 11^ inches, the design, 
which is quite a simple one, being wholly drawn by 
hand. The Stamp at the bottom dexter corner is also 
drawn by hand, and the whole document bears evi- 
dences of its provisional character. It has been well 
preserved, every word being still distinctly legible. 

As below are transcript and translation of the Cer- 

"A.-. L.-. G.-. D.-. G.-. A.-. D.-. L.-. U.-. 

" A Tous les Ma9ons reguliers. Union, Force, Salut ! 

"Nous V.-. M'^^ SS.-. PP.-. R.-. + & M.-. soussignes 
" faits prisonniers de Guerre par I'armee Anglaise, apres 
" nous etre reconnus prealablement, par les S.'. P.'. et 
" attouchemens connus des seuls M.'., nous etre re- 
" spectivement assures de nos divers Grades, tant par les 

* Vide Plate XVI. The original belongs to the private collection of 
the writer. 


" Exameins d'usage entre tous les ff.'. que pour nous 
" avoir vu mutuellement travailler la Pierre Brute dans 
" differentes "^ apres que le d^sir de propager sa V.". L.'. 
" nous k reunis pour construire a L'o.". de Vitoria, un 
" Xouveau Temple au G. A. de L'U. sous le titre dis- 
"tinctif des Infortunds, attendu que par I'Effet des 
•' circonstances nos Diplomas & titres M.\ sont tombes 
" au pouvoir de I'Etranger nous avons delibdr^ en ''^ 
" regulierement assemble et sous Tapprobation du 
" G.'. O.'. de France, aupres duquel nous sommes en 
" Instances de Constitution, qu'il }• serait supplier par 
" une attestation solemnelle, signe de nous, et ne Varie- 
" tur du AI.-. auquel elle sera delivree. 

" En Consequence nous declarons et attestons sur 
" notre parole m.". k tous nos Respect/. fC\ m.\ reguliers 
" des deux hemispheres et particulierement a notre SS.". 
" G.". M.". et aux T.'. 111.', membres du G.'. O.'. de France 
"que le T.\ C.\ ¥:. Palis, Jean Joseph, age de 52 ans 
" Domicilie a Paris Directeur des hopitau.v militaires Est 
" v^ritablement AI.'. possedant le Grade S.'. P.". R.\ +.". 
" et la dignite de Venerable de la R.'. [^ S* Jean sous le 
" titre distinctif de F"ranco Iberiene O.". de Zamora, 
" ainsy que nous I'avons reconnu et qu'il nous en a paru 
" digne par ses mceurs et par ses Vertus ; declarons en 
" outre que le f.'. \' denomme est un des fondateurs de 
" cette R. . L [|]^ qu'il a merite par ses qualites et son 
" Zele m.". d'y etre eleve a la Dignite de M'^^ des Cere- 
" monies. 

" Le Present delivre au f.". Palis pour remplacer les 
" Diplomes et titres M.'. qu'il a perdus et lui meriter 
" aupres des M.'. reguliers de toute la Terre, I'accueil, 
" I'assistance et la fraternite que nous nous devons entre 
" nous. 


" Signe en Stance Gendrale Convoqu^ 
" specialement k cet Effet a Vitoria le 
" is'^™ Jour du g'^"'^ Mois de la V.-. L.-. 5813. 

" Second SurveiUant. Le Venerable. Premier Surveillant. 

" Richard. Lamarque. Figuiere. 

" El.-. 2.-. S.-. S.-. P.-. R.'. X S.-. p.-. R.-. X .-. p.-. s.'. 

" Barthelmy. Pinet. 

"G.-. I.-. C.-. 31.-. ch.-. d'or.-. 

" Le Garde des Lejournee. Boubaki. Madrigal. Paray. 
" Sceaux. M.-. R.-. x .-. Exp* C. S.'. P.'. R.'. + 

"■ Jo main. Maupetit de Regaut. Nallard. 

" M.-. P.-. S.-. P.-. R.-. + S.-. P.-. R.-. + P.-. M.-. de la [Zl 

" Le Tresorier. 

" Blanchen. 
■' M.-. 

S.-. P.-. R.-. + 

Le Secretaire. 

S.-. R-. R.-. + 

''Ant. Mattel. Francisco de Paula Cabritta. 
" Or.-. 

" M.-. A.-, p.-. t.-. 

" M.-." 

(In dexter margin 
endorsed by recipient : 

" Ne Varietur. 
" Palis. 
"S.-. P.-. R.-. +.-. 33™ 
"M*^^ des €.-.") 




" To all Regular Masons. Unity, Strength, Greeting. 

" We Worshipful blaster, Sovereign Princes Rose 
" Croix and ^Master Masons, whose names are sub- 
" scribed below, taken prisoners of war by the English 
" arm\-, having previous!}- acknowledged one another 
" b\- the Signs, \\'ords and Grips known onl\- to 
" Masons, and whose degrees have been severally 
" proved both by the usual examination, and by 
" mutual working on the Rough Ashlar in different 
■ Lodges, having a desire to propagate the True Light, 
" ha\ e united to erect a new Temple at Vittoria, to 
" the Great Architect of the Universe, under the 
" name of ' The Unfortunate Ones.' Because by force 
" of circumstances our Diplomas and Masonic \'^ouchers 
" have fallen into the hands of strangers, we have 
" determined in regular Lodge assembled, and with 
" the approbation of the Grand Orient of France, 
" whom we have petitioned for a Constitution, that a 
" Certificate shall be supplied, dul\- signed b}- us, 
"and the Xe \'arietur of the Master Alason to whom 
" it ma}- be delivered. 

" We therefore declare upon our word as Masons, 
" to all regular Brethren throughout the two hemi- 
" spheres, and especial!}- to our Supreme Grand Master 
"and \'ery Illustrious Brethren of the Grand Orient 
" of France, that our ver}- dear Brother John Joseph 
"Palis, age 52 years, domiciled in Paris, Superin- 
" tendent of Alilitary Hospitals, is a Master Mason, 


"having taken the degree of Sovereign Prince Rose 
" Croix, and attained to the dignity of Master of the 
" Lodge of St. John, known by the name of Franco 
" Iberiene, Orient of Zamora, also that we have ac- 
" knowledged him as such, as he seemed to be a 
" worthy Mason both in manners and virtues, and 
" declare further, that the said Brother is one of the 
" founders of this worshipful Lodge, and has earned 
"by his good qualities and Masonic zeal, the honor 
"of being appointed Master of the Ceremonies therein. 

" The present Certificate is delivered to Bro. Palis 
"to replace the Diplomas and Masonic Vouchers that 
"he has lost, and deserves from all regular Masons 
" throughout the world, recognition, assistance and 
" fraternal welcome as is customary amongst us. 

" Signed in General Assembly, especially convened 
"for the purpose, at Vittoria, the iSth, Day of the 
"9th, Month of the True Light 5813." 

How long this Lodge continued to hold its Meet- 
ings at Vittoria, or of how many members it consisted, 
are details about which it is now quite impossible to 
obtain any information. The Peace of May, 18 14, 
however, would certainly dissolve the Lodge, and en- 
able the members to return to their respective homes. 



"Vantage. (IBer^s.) 

"goeurs ^nts." 

About the year 1810 a Lodge of this name was 
open and working in this small Berkshire town, among 
the French prisoners of war located there. They were 
quartered in some large barns which have long since 
been pulled down, and the only traces left in the 
district of their sojourn, are some silver forks, which 
were made by them, and are now in the possession 
of a Berkshire Mason. There are also one or two 
old paupers in the workhouse, who proudly boast of 
being descendants of the " Frenchies.'' 

The existence of the Lodge held by the prisoners 
at Wantage, is ascertained from three signatures in 
the Kelso MS.* 

" Anglade, M.'. L'o.'. de Wantage, Coeurs Unis. 
"A. Fabre, M.'. L'o.'. de Wantage, Cceurs unis.\ 
" Frangois, M.". L'o.". de Wantage, coeurs Unis.\" 

On November 17th, 1810, seven Freemasons, pri- 
soners of war, visited the Lodge of Economj', No. 88 

* Vide p. 77. 


(now "]&) Winchester, when passing through that town, 
en route to Portsmouth, to be embarked for Scotland* 
Three of these were the Brethren above mentioned, 
the remaining four being 

"m Daguef. S* Sebastien. 

"J. Vallin.-. Brest. ^lu de Sulli k L'orient de x 

" \I. Bortinot, des arts & I'amitid'. 

" Larminat, M.-. S^ Fr^d^ric, orient de Boulogne." 

It is very probable that these four were also mem- 
bers of the "Coeurs Unis" at Wantage, and were 
being removed with other prisoners from that place 
to Scotland, Winchester being in the direct line of 
march between that town and Portsmouth, where they 
were to be embarked. The reason that the Wantage 
Lodge is not appended to the last four names, is 
probably due to the fact, that they were not initiates 
of the Lodge, and preferred, according to the general 
custom, to add the names of the Lodges to which 
they originally belonged. 

On November 30th, 18 10, the seven Brethren above 
named had already reached their destination at Kelso, 
and together visited the Scotch Lodge in that town, 
as recorded under the heading of " Kelso." 


Vide " Extracts from the Minute Books of the . . . Lodge of 
Economy," T. Stopher, p. 4. 


^iiicanfon. (^oxrtersef.) 

C^esiveb "g'cace.) 


In March, 1806, a large number of French prisoners 
of war arrived in this town. There were about two 
hundred in all, General Rochambeau being amongst 

This General was a son of Marshal Rochambeau, 
who commanded the French under Lafayette in the 
American War of Independence. In the year 1802 
he was sent with an army of 15,000 men to St. Do- 
mingo in the West Indies, to assist in putting down 
a rebellion against the French dominion in that Island. 
He landed on November 2nd, and within a month 
was compelled to surrender to the black general 
Dessalines, being allowed however to return with his 
troops to France. War having in the meantime broken 
out between Great Britain and France, Rochambeau 
and all his vessels were captured and carried as 
prisoners to England.* 

* Vuie Cassell's "Illustrated History of England," Vol. VI., p. 207. 


Of the Lodge " La Paix Ddsirde," two Certificates 
are still in existence, both of which are printed on 
parchment from an engraved plate by Clewitt, printer, 

This is the only Prisoners' Lodge, as far as is 
known, in which an engraved plate was used for Cer- 
tificates. In every other case these documents were 
entirely written and drawn by hand, some of the 
designs, especially those represented on Plates IV., 
XII. and XV., being splendid specimens of penmanship. 
It may be assumed therefore, either that the mem- 
bers expected to require a large number of these 
forms, or that they had no Mason amongst them, 
who was competent to execute these documents to 
their satisfaction. 

The two Certificates are i5j{ inches by 15 inches 
in size, and were granted to Englishmen, one being 
a Joining Member, and the other an Initiate. The 
same forms, in which both French and English are 
used, served no doubt for the French members also, 
which is quite an exception, all other Certificates 
hitherto traced, being made out in the French language 
only, when intended for French Masons. 

The earlier of the two documents was granted to 
Bro. Benjamin Plummer,* who was a distinguished 
Officer of the "Atholl" Grand Lodge of England. 
It is dated November 22nd, 18 10, and as usual with 
all French Certificates, is signed by all the Officers 
and members of the Lodge, in this case fifteen in 

As below is a transcript of this Certificate.! 

* Particulars of Plummer's Masonic career ft given on pages 35-6. 
t Vide Plate XVII. The original is in the Collection belonging to the 
Grand Lodge of England. 


A LA G .-. DU G .-. A.-. DE L'U.-. 




A tous Magons disperses sur la 
surface du Globe, 


CIERS de la R/. L.-. de St. Jean, 
sous le titre distinctif de La paix 
ddsir^e, r^guliferement en instance k 
L'O.'. de Wincanton, en Angleterre, 
et assembles par les NN.'. M.'. connus 
des V.-. M.-. CERTIFIONS, que le 
T.\ C.'. F.'. Benjamin Plwnmer, agent 
commercial, (ex-premier grand Surv '. 
du G.\ 0.\ d^ Angleterre) z%€ du jp 
ans, natif de Shepton-mallet Comte de 
Sotnerset, est membre de notre R.'. 
ATT.', au Troisihne Grade symbolique, 
que la Regularity de sa conduite, ses 
bonnes moeurs, et son exactitude aux 
Travaux, nous I'ont rendu cher et 
recommandable : Prions tous les 
Magons r^guliers, tant des 00.\ de 
France, que de ceux etrangers, de 
reconnaitre ledit F.'. Plummer dans 
la dite qualite, de lui accorder la con- 
sideration qui lui est due et de lui 
porter tous les secours dont il pourrait 
avoir besoin, comme nous aurions la 




To all Men enlightened on the 
surface of the Earth, 


& MEMBERS of the Worshipful Lodge 
La Paix D&iree regularly assembled 
in the East of Wincanton in England ; 
Worthy Brother Benjamin Plumtner, 
commercial agent, (Past Senior grand 
warden of the grand lodge of Eng- 
land) aged 3g Years, born at Shepton 
Mallet County of Somerset who has 
signed his Name in the Margin hereof, 
is a Master Mason in this our Lodge, 
of a good Report, beloved and es- 
teemed amongst us : as such we 
earnestly recommend him to the 
brotherly Benevolence of all Free 
and Accepted Masons, & request 
them to protect and admit our said 
Brother Plummer into all Regular 
Lodges throughout the whole Uni-. 
verse, pledging a grateful return for 
the kindness shewn to him. 

IN TESTIMONY whereof we have 
hereunto subscribed our Names and 



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~* ~> 4-t 



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M M.i 

T F^ITtlDELIVREen Eogc.kXZ-'i.-.duj:"- M.-. de Can (te UiV .-.U-.^W 

■ m ( mmlgoirt.kzi rioyemdre \S\0 J .Jgne de nous, comrrsiaiie de mire SecMaite. ft '! \ 

^ "i"'i dffiScaiii i-iTiml'ir de iin/n- Aichiitcluif.pour tiuoir son incinei eiitiei rifet, aiira \ \ 

^ w . ,inlr^HUUim de la iignalkrc Ju ddr T.: rfuU a app.xee dcuant nmis. 

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id '■'m "I the Irrmherht titneHtAiim'tfWMns 

• / .••■K • ,;«'/ admit Mr Mid Rnilmiiuniinir 

• •■ , i 'iti: oic, I'tedging a grat^l rVflurM fir {lit ' 

si,,-.,, I 

IN TESTIMONY luhei-eof ,ue hnvehereim/o subscriM etir Komfl mi I0xtlillii 
Sent „f our Lodge, litis ti.''' Da,/ of the ,):/:-M<'rUll A L.-. 5fil and , I^M^kr ii. 
AD.-. 1810. ' ' ; 

WIN CANTON. —Plum men's Certificate. 
{Vide page 126.) 



de le faire 

pour eux- 

EN FOI de quoi nous lui avons 
accorde le present Certificat. 

FAIT et DELIVRE en Loge, le 
22ime J.-, du 9*™« M/. de I'an de la 
v.". L.\ 58/0 (^re vulgaire, le 22 No- 
vembre \%id) signe de nous, contre- 
signd de notre Secretaire, et revfetu 
des Sceau et Timbre de notre Archi- 
tecture, pour avoir son plein et entier 
effet, apr^s la confrontation de la sig- 
nature du dit F.". qu'il a apposee 
devant nous. 

affixed the Seal of our Lodge, this 
22nd. Day of the gth. Month, A.L.'. 
58ZO and November 22nd. A.D.'. 
1 8m 

' "^ 

Le V.-. 

E. Hu^uet. Tocaueville. A 


M.-. Ch. d'or. S.-. P.'. R.-. -t-.-. 

Le 1^ Surv.-. Le i? 

Surv.-. ( p,i,. A 

/^ \^ Evin. Marcinat. \^ y 

( LODGE \ ch.-. d'or.-. M.-. 

i«' s.-. 

I SEAL. 1 

\ If. Hacquet. Francmot. 

Par mandement de 

\^__^ M.-. El.-. ch.-. d'or.-. 

la R.-. L.-. 

Le secretaire. 

Scelle et Timbre par Navailler. Silhouette. 
nous Garde des sceau et El.-. M.'. 

M. A. Giraud. 

E. Rouget. 


timbre. Frianessnon. 




Adj.-. au Secret. M.-. 

(Countersigned on dexter side: " Ne varietur. B. P/umvier.") 
(Countersigned on sinister side: "Vu par L'Orateur, Reinaud. ch.\ d'or.'") 


The Seal of red wax is placed on three narrow 
ribbons, white, red and light blue, the last-named at the 
top. No device can now be seen on the Seal, in con- 
sequence of its damaged condition. 

An Apron, worn in this Lodge in 1810 by Bro. 
Duchemin, whose signature appears on the above 
Certificate, is still preserved by his son, who resides 
in the North of England. He visited Wincanton a few 
years ago, and the Apron was then photographed. It 
is a very handsome Apron of silk, with the usual 
devices painted thereon.* 

The second existing Certificate issued by this Lodge 
is precisely the same as the one of Plummer's already 
transcribed. It is dated December 20th, 18 10, and was 
granted to Harry Cooper, age 23 years, born at Win- 
canton, and described as a cabinet-maker and joiner 
(Marchand Ebeniste). The present owner of the Cer- 
tificate, Bro. R. R. Hutchings, of Wincanton, has always 
understood that Cooper was initiated in the Lodge. 
The document is not signed by the recipient, but bears 
the signatures of the following nine members of the 
Lodge at the foot : — 

"Le v.". Tocqueville. ch';'| d'or.". 

"Le 1'?'^ Surv.'. Rouget. 

"Le 2"^* Surv.". Fleury. 

"Le secretaire. M. A. Giraud. Ecc". 

"Garde des Sceau et Timbre. Frianessnon. Elu.\ 

"L'Orateur. E. Huguet. El.-. 
"'Racaudy. M.'. 
" Violet, el.-. 
" Remliner. M.-." 

* Vide Plate XVIII. 


There is a very fine circular red wax Seal* on blue 
ribbon, enclosed in a tin box two inches in diameter 
attached to this document. The device consists of two 
branches of olive enclosing a triangle, in which is an 
all-seeing eye irradiated, the words " La Paix D6sir^e " 
being placed along two sides of the triangle. 

It is quite impossible to ascertain of how many 
members this Lodge consisted, or how long it continued 
to work, but when the French Brethren were suddenly 
called away from Wincanton, they left owing a good 
many hundred pounds to the tradesmen of the town. 


* Vide Frontispiece. 


rtftsi^ prisoners of ^ar 
in prance. 

After dealing, as fully as circumstances permit, with 
the Lodges established by French Prisoners of War 
in Great Britain and elsewhere, it will perhaps not be 
considered out of place to refer very briefly to the 
number and treatment of the British Prisoners of War 
in France at the same period. 

It might naturally be expected that, considering 
the enormous number of French prisoners in Great 
Britain, there must have been a very large number 
of British prisoners in France. The exact number 
of these is however not known, or at any rate cannot 
be ascertained now, but it is believed they did not 
exceed a total of 25,000, many of whom were non- 
combatants, having been travellers and temporary resi- 
dents in France, who were most unjustifiably arrested 
and detained by the express orders of Napoleon.* 
Some of them were admitted to parole, as with the 
French prisoners in Great Britain, but all were located 
in fortified towns, to reduce to a minimum their chances 
of escape. A fund was raised in England by public 
subscription for the benefit of these British prisoners, 

For particulars of this high-handed proceeding, vide Alison's 
"History of Europe," 1854 edit., Vol. V., pp. 277-8. 


and in a Circular* soliciting donations to this fund, 
it is stated that a large number of them were im- 
prisoned in the northern fortresses of Verdun, Valen- 
ciennes, Arras, Givet, Sarre Libre and Bitche.f 

Amongst these British prisoners there was, most 
probably, a considerable number of Freemasons, as 
many of the commissioned and non-commissioned 
officers of the British army were members of the 
Craft at that time, but there is only one instance on 
record of a Lodge being held amongst them during 
their detention. This was Lodge No. 183 " Antients," 
which was established in the 9th Regiment of Foot 
in the year 1803. Two years later a detachment 
of this regiment, including the head-quarters and staff, 
was wrecked on the French coast near Calais. They 
were captured and confined as prisoners of war in 
the fortress of Valenciennes until the year 1814.J: 
During the whole of this period the Lodge seems to 
have met regularly — in 1806 in a room at No. 7, Rue 
Cordon, subsequently at the " Pavilion of Liberty," and 
in 18 1 2 in the Rue de Bobineau.§ The minutes of 
these Meetings are still in existence. 

* A copy of this Circular is preserved in the Leicester freemasons' 
Hall Library. 

+ Interesting details of the life of the British prisoners in France will 
Vie found in a Book entitled "Letters from France written in the 
years 1803-4, including a particular account of Verdun and the 
situation of the British captives in that city," by James Forbes, 
fronts., 2 vols., 8vo., 1806; also in a work, of which the second 
edition, in two volumes, was published in London in 1810, called 
" A Picture of Verdun, or the English detained in France, from 
the Portfolio of a Detenu." 

J Vide Gould's "Military Lodges," p. 145. 

§ Viiie Lane's "Masonic Records," p. 139. 


Many prominent Masons of high rank were, at one 
time or another, prisoners in the hands of the French ; 
two may be mentioned here, although a long list could 
be compiled. Lord Rawdon, afterwards Earl of Moira 
and Marquess of Hastings, Acting Grand Master of 
the Grand Lodge of England from 1790 to 181 3, was 
captured by the French man-of-war Glorieuse when 
returning invalided from America in the year 1782, and 
conveyed as a prisoner of war to the fortress of Brest, 
but was soon exchanged* Lt. Gen. Sir Chas. J. 
Napier, G.C.B., when Major of the 50th Regiment of 
Foot, was wounded and taken prisoner at the Battle of 
Corunna, in 1806 ; he was subsequently allowed to go to 
England on parole, where he found his friends actually 
mourning him as dead and administering his effects.f 

For the relief of the poorer Brethren amongst the 
British prisoners, a considerable sum of money was 
collected by the Freemasons of England. The Treas- 
urers' accounts and Minute-books of many old Lodges 
indicate the generous support accorded to this fund by 
members of the Craft generally, and at the Annual 
Festivals of Provincial Grand Lodges, as well as 
private Lodges, the Tyler's Toast " To all poor and 
distressed Masons," doubtless often stimulated the 
charity of the Brethren. In the year 1808, at a Meet- 
ing of the Provincial Grand Lodge of Northumberland, 
the Brethren went in procession to church, when a 
collection was made " for those poor brethren confined 

* Vide Gould's "Military Lodges," p. 172. 

t Vide Knight's Cyclopedia, 2nd Sup., 1858, p. 445. 


in French prisons."* A diligent search amongst old 
Lodge records would bring to light many similar 
instances of support. 

Numerous cases are also on record where prisoners, 
who had the good fortune to be Freemasons, were 
relieved and assisted by their French Brethren, while 
in many other cases their treatment was rendered 
less harsh by the representations or by the direct in- 
fluence of French Masons. 

From a perusal of the foregoing pages it will be seen, 
how in many ways the influence of Freemasonry was 
exerted for the benefit of the prisoners of war, and how 
the establishment of Lodges amongst them tended to 
relieve the tedious monotony of their lives. 

Alike in England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales and 
France, the best efforts of the Fraternity seem to have 
been constantly directed, to alleviating the hardships 
and privations incident to a prolonged captivity ; and 
there is little doubt that many a prisoner had good 
cause to rejoice over his membership of the Craft. 

Indeed the history of every war of modern times, 
is full of instances of help and assistance rendered 
to one another by Brethren in the opposing forces, 
and every true Mason must rejoice to know that the 
tenets, principles and lessons inculcated in the Lodges 
have been exemplified in daily life, that the Craft has 
been able, on so many occasions, to soften some of the 

* Vide Strachan's "Northumbrian Masonry," p. io6. 


asperities of warfare, to subdue some of the passions 
aroused by the battle, to turn aside the fatal blow, 
and transform an apparently bloodthirsty enemy into 
a friend and a brother. 

May this benign influence of Freemasonry grow and 
extend more and more as the years roll round, till 
the time come, foreshadowed by the Mason-poet, when 

" — man to man, the warld o'er. 
Shall brithers be — " 


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